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博碩士論文: 六堆客家粄仔文化之研究=The Cultural Research of Rice-based cake In Liu- Dui Hakka

  • 作者:邱盛琪(Chiu,Sheng-Chi)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:鍾鳳嬌(Chung,Feng-chiao)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:屏東科技大學
  • 系所名稱:客家文化產業研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2011
  • 畢業學年度:99
  • 頁數:176
    • 主題:生活及儀禮器物-飲食器具
    • 關鍵詞:六堆地區、客家粄、俗民誌、Liu-Dui area、Hakka rice-based cake、Ethnography
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    飲食是文化傳承的重要部分,透過飲食文化可暸解該族群的生活慣習與思維。米食是客家族群的主食,特別在農閒及節日慶典中,客家民族會製作粄仔以作為家常零食或崇神敬祖的祭儀使用。尤其六堆客家粄類的多樣性,製作的工藝技巧,及運用在慶典節日的獨特性,更保留了客家傳統的特色。
    具體而言,本研究的目的為:一、探究六堆地區客家社會所存在粄仔的種類。二、傳承六堆地區客家社會粄仔的製作方法。三、了解六堆地區各堆粄仔製作器具的差異及粄仔製作方法的差異。四、探索六堆地區客家社會粄仔使用在祭儀上的意涵。五、探索植物蔬果在粄仔製作上的應用及其使用的原因與作用。六、傳承六堆地區客家粄仔的文化,將六堆客家粄仔的名稱及製作器具推廣出去,讓更多人參考,最終目的以期達到客家文化傳承的意義。

    本研究以俗民誌的方法論為基礎,採取田野調查與深度訪談法作為本研究之研究途徑,訪談對象為粄類的專業製作者、客家禮儀專業執業者及地方熟悉客家粄仔的耆老。透過詳盡的田野調查、實物攝影等作為,將六堆的粄類按種類、製作材料、製作器材、在祭儀上的運用等,作成完整的調查記錄,以呈現六堆客家傳統粄類的文化意涵。
    研究發現,六堆客家粄仔大部份是以米為製作的材料,有一部份並非用米製成,但習慣上仍稱為粄或視同為粄,與米製的粄仔共存於六堆的客家聚落之中。米製的粄計有27種,非米製的粄則有6種,其中有甜與鹹的口味、包餡、不包餡或粄皮與餡料混合之分別;更出現因應消費市場需要,而不定期創新研發的粄仔有3種,在此次研究中也發掘及製作出少部份幾乎被遺忘的六堆客家粄仔。由於族群的遷移或長期相互融合等因素影響,本研究發現在六堆客家聚落內同樣的粄仔出現了異質性,部份粄仔在外觀或名稱上衍生了11種具有差異的有趣現象。
    研究發現製作粄仔所使用的器具以傳統與現代並存使用,在製粄的過程中所運用的植物、蔬果高達17種、添加物有4種,在在體現了六堆客家人與生存環境互動下的生活智慧與務實性格。
    六堆客家粄仔在祭祀活動中,是不可或缺的供品之一,舉凡神佛祭典,婚喪喜慶,粄仔在祭儀的運用範圍非常普遍,可見粄仔在六堆客家人的生命禮俗中扮演極為重要的象徵載體。粄仔運用在祭儀時,所約定成俗的許多特殊的規制,也在本研究中獲得了具體的資訊。
    本研究走訪六堆客家聚落,將六堆粄仔做一普查工作,發掘了六堆粄仔的種類與現存應用狀況,對六堆人而言,喚起傳統文化的再現與重視,就整體台灣客家文化論,卻是對族群文化的完整性起了積極的作用。
    Diet is important part in Hakka cultural transmission. The habits and thinking of group could be recognized by understanding their dietary culture. The “ban”(rice-based cake) is the staple food in Hakka. Especially in slack farming seasons and festivities, “bans” are used as homemade snacks and ancestral worship rituals. Therefore, the variety of Liu-Dui Hakka “bans”, their particular making methods and special application in holidays and festivities, preserve the characteristics of Hakka culture.
    The objectives of this study were: 1. to investigate the types of Hakka “bans” in Liu-Dui area; 2. to transmit the productive methods of Hakka “bans” in Liu-Dui area; 3. to understand the tool of producing “bans” and the differences of productive methods in Liu-Dui; 4. to explore the meaning of Hakka “bans” used in ancestral worship rituals; 5. to explore the application of plant, fruits and vegetables in “bans”; 6. and to pass down the culture of Liu-Dui Hakka “ban”, such as the names and tools of making, therefore to transmit the whole Hakka culture.
    This study was based on ethnographic methodology. The field survey and in-depth interview were adopted. The producer, etiquette practitioners, and the grand old man of Hakka “bans” were interviewed regarding to the Liu-Dui Hakka “bans” as well as their type, material, making tool, and the application in ancestral worship. Therefore, the cultural meaning of Liu-Dui Hakka “bans” was also established.
    As the result, most Liu-Dui Hakka “bans” were made by rice, and some were not. However, these were also called “bans” and co-exist with rice-base “bans” in Liu-Dui Hakka. Twenty-seven types rice-based “bans” and 5 types which were not made by rice were found. The “bans” could be classify according to their flavor (sweet or salty) and stuffing (with stuffing, without stuffing, and mixed type). There were also three new creative “bans”. Furthermore, some Hakka “bans” which were almost forgotten. The variety in Liu-Dui Hakka “bans”, eleven differences in appearances and names, were also found in some Hakka “bans” due to the migration of Hakka people and cultural merging.
    In this research, the traditional and modern tools for making “bans” were both found; seventeen types of plant, fruit and vegetables, and four additives were also used. All these characteristics of Hakka “bans” showed the traditional Hakka life-style, simple and unadorned.
    The Liu-Dui Hakka “bans” was indispensable for ancestral worship and was widely used. The “bans” played an important role in life rituals. In this study, information about the special application of Liu-Dui Hakka “bans” in ancestral worship was also noticed.
    This study visited Liu-Dui Hakka villages, surveyed the Liu-Dui Hakka “bans”, and then discovered the types and application of Liu-Dui Hakka “bans”. The important of representation of traditional culture and was reminded for Liu-Dui people by this study. For the whole Taiwan Hakka culture, this study had positive effects on the completeness of ethnic culture.

    目錄:

    中文摘要 i
    英文摘要 iii
    謝 誌 vi
    目 錄 vii
    圖表目錄 ix
    第一章 緒論 1
    第一節 研究背景與動機 2
    第二節 研究目的 5
    第三節 研究限制 6
    第二章 文獻探討 8
    第一節 客家與六堆 8
    第二節 客家的米食文化 12
    第三節 客家的祭儀 16
    第三章 研究方法 17
    第一節 研究設計理念 17
    第二節 研究範圍與研究對象 22
    第三節 研究流程 23
    第四節 研究資料蒐集方法 25
    第四章 六堆客家粄仔的種類與製作 27
    第一節 客家粄仔的主材料 28
    第二節 六堆粄仔的製作器具 33
    第三節 六堆粄仔使用的添加物 46
    第四節 六堆粄仔與蔬果植物的關係 50
    第五節 六堆粄仔的種類 68
    第六節 六堆客家地區粄仔的差異 115
    第五章 粄仔在六堆客家祭儀上的運用 121
    第一節 六堆客家的祭祀活動 122
    第二節 粄仔在祭儀上的運用 144
    第三節 粄仔在祭儀的特殊規制 158
    第六章 結論與建議 161
    第一節 研究結論 161
    第二節 研究的省思與建議 166
    參考文獻 169
    附錄一 客家粄仔分類摘要表 173
    附錄二 六堆客家粄仔文化研究訪談對象摘要表 175
    作者簡介 176