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博碩士論文: 大埔、豐順客家話比較研究=Comparative Study of Dapu、Feng Shuenn Hakka Modalitiy

  • 作者:蘇軒正(Hsuan-cheng Su)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:羅肇錦(Chao-Chin Lo)(指導教授)、陳秀琪(Sui-Ki Cheng)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立中央大學
  • 系所名稱:客家研究碩士在職專班
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2010
  • 畢業學年度:98
  • 頁數:192
    • 主題:語言-大埔
    • 關鍵詞:35調、客家話、東勢、大埔、豐順、35調、Hakka Modalitiy、35blends、Dongshih、Dapu、Feng Shuenn
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    東勢客家話的歸屬問題,先後有江敏華(1998)、江俊龍(2003)的學位論文提及,初步認為和廣東省大埔縣的客家話最相近,而將東勢客家話訂為大埔客家話。之後吳中杰(2008)提出不同的看法,認為東勢話雖以大埔話為主幹,然而含有其他次方言,不等同於廣東大埔境內任何一個方言點。筆者為釐清東勢客家話的來源,前往東勢的原鄉廣東省大埔縣、豐順縣重新調查,希望能進一步瞭解東勢客家話的流變。
    本文共分成六章,第一章為序論,說明研究動機與目的、大埔豐順的語言分佈、文獻探討、研究方法。第二章為大埔豐順客家話語音系統,分別敘述了台中東勢、大埔高陂、豐順湯坑客家話的聲、韻、調語音系統。第三章描述大埔、豐順客家話和中古音的比較,分聲、韻、調作歷時縱向的探討。第四章說明大埔、豐順客家話的語音特點,同時對東勢的陰平本調(33)與變調(35),透過和東勢原鄉大埔、豐順的語言做比較,說明東勢特殊35調的來源。第五章敘述東勢、大埔、豐順客家話的詞彙比較,以內部共同詞彙、內部差異詞彙作比較分析,內部差異詞彙以東勢客家話為主體,分析東勢客家話的來源、受到其他語言影響的成分、自己演變的部分,以瞭解組成東勢客家話的成分。第六章結論,從前面的研究結果,重新思考東勢客家話的歸屬問題。
    以東勢、大埔、豐順的語音特點來看,共同的語音特點有:1.鼻音和塞音聲母的音韻行為不同。2.中古擦音聲母讀塞擦音聲母ts?-、t??-。3.知、章組聲母三等字有細音。4.咸、山、江、梗攝二等見曉組的細音字。5.效、咸、山、江、梗攝二等字的-o元音。6.部分地方清去幾乎都歸上聲。7.部分地方的詞彙並沒有仔尾詞。內部的差異有:1.大埔客家話部分知、章組影、喻母字出現舌尖後音t?-、t??-、?-、?-聲母之外,其他的聲母形式大致相同都有t?-、t??-、?-和ts-、ts?-、s-兩套滋絲音。2.大埔客家話蟹合一的「杯」字、止攝合三的「尾」字特殊的-ei韻母。3.豐順客家話的「銀」、「牛」韻母念成-en。4.豐順客家話的果合一、宕合一保留了較多的合口成分。5.東勢客家話在見組字較容易增生細音,如:「狗」念kieu31。6.大埔客家話少部分全濁上歸上聲。7.部分豐順客家話的清去幾乎都歸上聲。
    以東勢客家話為主對比大埔、豐順客家話:就細部的語音特點差異來分析,豐順和東勢的一致性比大埔更高;就較有特色詞彙來分析的話,內部共同詞彙的影響占35%,豐順客家話的影響占23%,大埔客家話的影響占13%,豐順和東勢的相似度略高於大埔。如同吳中杰(1997)所說:東勢客家話可能是大埔、豐順、饒平三方言的混合。就筆者的研究資料顯示:東勢客家話應該是以大埔、豐順客家話為主體,再加上在東勢地區與其他方言的接觸,最後融合成一種東勢主流的客家話,而其中豐順的成分應該比大埔的成分多,其餘對東勢客家話影響較少的客家話,語音的殘留大多保留在稱謂的詞彙中。
    Talking about the belonging of Tungshih Hakka Modality, there are Chiang, Min-Hua(1998) and Jiang,Jiunn Long (2003) have been studied in their thesis, and define Tungshih Hakka Modality as Guangdong Province’s Dapu Hakka. And then, WU Chong-chieh (2008) has different opinions, he consider that the key of Tungshih Hakka Modality is Dapu Hakka, however which consist other sub-dialects, and which not equal to any dialects points. The writer wants to clear the source of Tungshih Hakka Modality and went to Guangdong Province’s Dapu , and Feng Shuenn to research, and understands the transform of Tungshih Hakka Modality.
    There are six chapters in the thesis; the first chapter is the introduction, clear the research motivation and goal, the language spread in Dapu , and Feng Shuenn , the thesis research, research method. The second chapter is the language system of Dapu , and Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality, they statement the Hakka language system in Taichung Dongshih, Dapu, and Feng Shuenn. The third chapter describe the difference between Dapu , and Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality and Ancient Chinese. The fourth chapter statement the language special point of Dapu , and Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality, which also compare the language in Taichung Dongshih, Dapu, and Feng Shuenn, it means to clear the special 35 blends in Taichung Dongshih. The fifth chapter describes the wording of Dongshih, Dapu, and Feng Shuenn. It compares joint words in inner and exterior, the inner difference words use the key of Dongshih Hakka Modality. Compare the source, influenced by other languages and changed itself of Dongshih Hakka Modality. Try to understand the composing of Dongshih Hakka Modality. The sixth chapter is the conclusion, the chapter reconsider the belong question of Dongshih Hakka Modality.
    In the language special point of Dongshih, Dapu, and Feng Shuenn, the common language points consists are as follows. 1. The behavior of Nasals and Stops are different. 2. The Ancient Nasals reads as Affricates, such as ts?-、t??-. 3. Three levels such as Consonants have detail voice. 4. Two levels voices have detail voices. 5. Original voice of two level voices. 6 Some parts of voices are upper voices. 7. Parts of voices have no end voices. There are some inner differences. 1. Dapu Hakka Modality have voice behind tongue, such as t?-、t??-、?-、?-, and some other forms of Consonants are similar, such as t?-、t??-、?-and ts-、ts?-、s-. 3. The vowels of Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality read as –en. 4. Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality retains more heal ups. 5. Dongshih Hakka Modality has more increase detail voices, such as kieu31. 6. Parts of Dapu Hakka Modality are upper voices. 7. Parts of Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality are upper voices.
    Compare the Dongshih Hakka Modality to Dapu, and Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality. To analysis the detail language special difference, the unity of Dongshih and Feng Shuenn is higher than Dapu; If we compare the special words, the influence of inner common words is 35%, Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality is 23%, Dapu Hakka Modality is 13 %, the similarities of Feng Shuenn and Dongshih is higher than Dapu. The same as WU Chong-chieh(1997) said, Dongshih Hakka Modality may be the composition of Dapu, Feng Shuenn and Jaoping. From writer’s research, Dongshih Hakka Modality’s key point is Dapu and Feng Shuenn Hakka Modality, and added some other dialects in Dongshiha areas, in the end to blend to be a Hakka Modality which is the main trend in Dongshih, and the components in Feng Shuenn is more than Dapu, some other Hakka Modalities which is not influenced Dongshih Hakka Modalitiy is also be retained in the words of appellation.

    目錄:

    封面………………………………………………………I
    電子授權書………………………………………………II
    中文摘要…………………………………………………III
    英文摘要…………………………………………………V
    誌謝………………………………………………………VII
    圖1:大埔縣地圖………………………………………VIII
    圖2:豐順縣地圖………………………………………IX
    圖3:大埔客家話的語言分片…………………………X
    圖4:豐順客家話的語言分片…………………………X
    目錄………………………………………………………XII
    第一章、 緒 論…………………………………………1
    一、 研究動機與目的……………………………………1
    二、 二、大埔縣的史地和方言分佈……………………3
    三、豐順縣的史地和方言分佈…………………………4
    四、文獻探討……………………………………………5
    五、研究內容及方法……………………………………10
    (一)田野調查法………………………………………10
    (二)語音描寫法………………………………………13
    (三)共時比較法………………………………………14
    (四)歷時比較法………………………………………15
    (五)歷史比較法………………………………………15
    第二章、大埔、豐順客家話語音系統…………………16
    一、台中東勢客家話語音系統…………………………16
    (一)聲母系統…………………………………………16
    (二)韻母系統…………………………………………18
    (三)聲調系統…………………………………………21
    二、大埔客家話語音系統(高陂話)…………………23
    (一)聲母系統…………………………………………23
    (二)韻母系統…………………………………………25
    (三)聲調系統…………………………………………28
    三、豐順客家話語音系統(湯坑話)…………………30
    (一)聲母系統…………………………………………30
    (二)韻母系統…………………………………………32
    (三)聲調系統…………………………………………35
    第三章、大埔、豐順客家話和中古音比較……………38
    一、聲母的比較…………………………………………38
    二、韻母的比較…………………………………………46
    三、聲調的比較…………………………………………58
    第四章、大埔豐順客家話的語音特點…………………62
    一、聲母的特點…………………………………………62
    (一)明母字念?-………………………………………62
    (二)鼻音和塞音聲母的音韻行為不同………………62
    (三)中古擦音聲母讀塞擦音…………………………64
    (四)精莊組字不同的韻母形式………………………65
    (五)日、影、喻母的?-和?-聲母……………………66
    (六)知、莊、章聲母的前化運動……………………67
    二、韻母的特點…………………………………………68
    (一)三等的知章組字有細音…………………………68
    (二)咸、山、江、梗攝二等見曉組的細音字………69
    (三)止攝字的-ai、-ie韻母……………………………69
    (四)一、二等字的-o和-a元音對比…………………70
    (五)效、咸、山、江、梗攝二等字的-o元音………71
    (六)合口字的開口化現象……………………………72
    (七)見組字的保守化現象……………………………73
    (八)蟹、梗兩攝的-e元音……………………………74
    三、東勢陰平本調(33、35)與變調(35)的討論…75
    (一)單音詞的35調…………………………………76
    (二)陰平連讀變調……………………………………78
    (三)東勢35調的來源…………………………………82
    第五章、大埔豐順客家話的詞彙比較…………………84
    一、內部共同詞彙………………………………………84
    二、內部差異詞彙………………………………………95
    (一) 東勢和大埔相同的詞彙……………………………96
    (二) 東勢和豐順相同的詞彙……………………………100
    (三) 東勢受到閩南語影響的詞彙………………………109
    (四) 東勢本身發展出的詞彙……………………………115
    三、小結…………………………………………………122
    第六章、結論……………………………………………123
    附錄………………………………………………………126
    附錄一……………………………………………………126
    參考書目…………………………………………………190
    一、專書…………………………………………………190
    二、期刊論文……………………………………………190
    三、學位論文……………………………………………191