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博碩士論文: 六堆客家人與臺灣本土黑豬之文化建構=Reconstructing Culture for Liu-Dui Hakka and Taiwan Indigenous Black Swine

  • 作者:李芃蓁(Peng-Chen Lee)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:曾純純(Cheng, Chun-chun)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立屏東科技大學
  • 系所名稱:客家文化產業研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2010
  • 畢業學年度:98
  • 頁數:131
    • 主題:風俗-其他
    • 關鍵詞:客家、臺灣本土黑豬、集體記憶、文化資產、種原保育、Hakka、Taiwan Indigenous Black Swine、Collective Memory、Cultual Heritage、Germplasm Conservation
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    根據臺灣大學動物科學技術學系的研究團隊利用細胞核與粒線體DNA之遺傳訊息,經由分子親緣之分析,指出現今六堆客家人飼養的黑豬具有獨特的臺灣本土黑豬之遺傳特徵。因為臺灣客家族群本著純樸勤儉和保守的性格,將少數臺灣原生黑豬保留在六堆客家庄,這些未被重視的臺灣本土黑豬,無論在文化祭儀或生活經濟上皆在客家文化中,扮演重要角色,但至今,臺灣本土黑豬與客家人社群生活相關的研究都未被提及。
    本研究主要以屏東縣內埔、竹田地區曾豢養過和正在養殖黑豬的客家農民共11位為研究對象,運用文獻分析法、參與觀察法和深度訪談法等質性技術探討臺灣本土黑豬在六堆客家村落中被保種與淘汰的可能因素,探究兩者間互動所產生的文化,紀錄六堆客家人與黑豬共同的記憶以作為六堆客家重要的文化資產,並在經營理念的建構上,輔以閩南養豬農民的訪談做簡單的比較。
    研究結果顯示:黑豬隨著客家移民來到臺灣,是從前農民主要的副業,不但可增加家庭的收入,還能提高農地的肥力,在農作文化上具代表性。在飲食文化上,豬肉料理的「鹹、肥、香」是客家菜最具代表的特色。在祭祀文化上,黑豬是客家人信仰祭典的重要牲醴,豬欄伯公是養豬農民的信仰。在經營理念上,因價格平穩、投資風險小等因素,符合客家人保守的個性。黑豬飼養從副業轉做企業化經營,雖然經營方式和文化已改變,但精神卻還在。
    最後依據研究結果,建議在文化層面上,蒐集黑豬之照片和過去故事以作為史料收藏。在技術層面上,確立六堆種公豬之種原和遺傳資源,做好配種管理、品牌認證及建置後續肉品加工的機制。在行銷層面上,找出臺灣本土黑豬的利基市場,做出市場區隔,結合客家的文化背景,以創出獨特的肉品市場。在其他層面上,結合農民的力量共同為黑豬產業振興計畫盡一份心力,開創更大的產業利益。在後續研究上,期許未來對臺灣本土黑豬的產業和民眾的觀感進行探究。以上建議,希望提供六堆客家黑豬相關產業的業者及未來研究者做為參考。
    This study performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the genetic information contained within the cell nuclei and mitochondrial DNA and derived from the research team of the Department of Animal Science and Technology at National Taiwan University, in order to identify the genetic characteristics of Taiwan indigenous black swine that can only be found in the black swine raised by Hakka people from Liudui nowadays. The modest, thrifty and conservative nature of Hakka people in Taiwan contributed to the conservation of rare Taiwan indigenous black swine in the Hakka community in Liudui. Despite the little attention received and lack of studies related to Taiwan indigenous black swine and the community life of Hakka people, such local black swine has played a critical role in the cultural rituals, life and economy of Hakka people.
    This study targeted Hakka farmers who used to raise or had been raising black swine in Neipu and Jhutian areas of Pingtung County, totaling eleven participants. By employing qualitative research techniques such as documentary analysis, participant observation and in-depth interviews, this study investigated the possible factors that resulted in the conservation and extinction of Taiwan indigenous black swine in the Hakka villages in Liudui, explored the culture formed during the interactions between the residents and black swine, and recorded the common recollection involving the local Hakka people and black swine, in order to preserve the important cultural heritage of Hakka people in Liudui. This study also made a simple comparison in the operating philosophy according to the interviews on Min-Nan swine farmers.
    The results revealed that black swine migrated to Taiwan along with Hakka immigrants. Swine raising was the major subsidiary occupation of farmers in the past because it not only increased a household’s income, but also enhanced the fertility of farmlands, thus becoming a representative characteristic of agricultural culture. In terms of food culture, pork dishes that feature saltiness, high fat, and rich aroma were the most typical Hakka food. With respect to the religious culture, black swine was the major animal sacrificed during the ritual events of Hakka people, and the Earth God in pigpens played a major part of swine farmers’ belief. As for the operating philosophy, swine raising was ideal for conservative Hakka people due to the steady prices and low investment risks. Although black swine raising has turned into an enterprise business from a subsidiary occupation, leading to the transition of operational methods and culture, the spirits remained.
    Based on the research findings, this study suggested an archive of historical materials consisting of photographs and past stories of black swine in the cultural aspect. In the technological aspect, the germplasm and genetic resources of the boars bred in Liudui should be established, breeding management and brand certification should be carried out, and a sound mechanism for subsequent meat processing should be set up. In regard to the marketing aspect, it is necessary to find niche markets for Taiwan indigenous black swine and conduct market segmentation, while combining the cultural backgrounds of Hakka people, in order to create a unique meat market. It is also suggested to combine the forces of farmers to jointly contribute to the revival of the black swine industry and generate greater industrial benefits in the other aspects. As far as future studies are concerned, investigations into the Taiwan indigenous black swine industry and public perception are suggested. It is hoped that the above suggestions may serve as a reference for enterprises related to the black swine raised in Liudui and future researchers.

    目錄:

    摘 要 i
    Abstract iii
    謝 誌 v
    目 錄 vi
    圖表目錄 viii
    第一章 緒論 1
    第一節 研究背景與動機 1
    第二節 研究之重要性 5
    第三節 研究目的 6
    第四節 研究範圍與限制 6
    第五節 名詞釋義 9
    第二章 文獻探討 12
    第一節 臺灣引進豬隻之發展 12
    第二節 客家產業經濟 22
    第三節 人與豬關係探討 25
    第四節 文化之集體記憶建構 29
    第三章 研究方法與步驟 32
    第一節 研究方法 32
    第二節 研究對象 35
    第三節 研究工具 37
    第四節 研究實施 38
    第五節 資料分析與處理 42
    第四章 客家人與臺灣本土黑豬的記憶建構 49
    第一節 客家人養殖黑豬之因素建構 49
    第二節 客家人與黑豬之情感建構 56
    第三節 客家人養殖黑豬之經營理念建構 71
    第五章 臺灣本土黑豬與客家文化 79
    第一節 黑豬與畜養文化 79
    第二節 黑豬與飲食文化 96
    第三節 黑豬與祭祀文化 103
    第六章 結論與建議 113
    第一節 結論 113
    第二節 建議 116
    第三節 反省與後續研究建議 117
    參考文獻 119
    附錄一 127
    作者簡介 131