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博碩士論文: 關西饒平客家話調查研究-以鄭屋、許屋為例=Guanxi Raoping Hakka Dialect Research-A Case Study of Zheng''s family and Xu''s family

  • 作者:張孟涵(Meng-han Chang)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:羅肇錦(Zhao-Jin Luo)(指導教授)、陳秀琪(Xiu-Qi Chen)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立中央大學
  • 系所名稱:客家語文研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2010
  • 畢業學年度:98
  • 頁數:279
    • 主題:語言-饒平
    • 關鍵詞:共時、歷時、移借、接觸、語言、關西、borrowing、contact、language、Guanxi、chronologic
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    位於新竹縣境內的關西鎮,是個群山環抱的山城,舊稱鹹菜甕,聚集了來自各地的閩客族群,與其他縣市相比,在客家族群中有不少饒平客定居,但在當地客家的比例中仍算是少數,故饒平客語大多只在各姓氏宗族中對內使用,對外多使用其他強勢方言或次方言。早期強大的宗族力量,使得饒平客語在各姓氏之間保留下來,傳承了一些先人們口耳相傳的鄉音,但也因為近代各族群間互動頻繁,使得語音開始轉變,饒平客語開始滲入其他方言、次方言的語音現象,但因宗族語言的封閉性,使得各姓氏內變化速度與情況不一,關西的饒平客語呈現多樣化,故本文以關西兩大饒平姓氏:位於「內關西」的鄭屋與「外關西」的許屋,為研究對象,探討關西饒平客語的現狀與語言接觸下的變化。
    本文共分七章,第一章為緒論,說明研究動機、對象與環境、研究方法以及相關研究參考文獻。第二章描述了關西鄭屋、許屋的聲、韻、調等音韻結構及同音字表。第三章將關西饒平客家話與中古音相比較,作歷時的縱向探討。第四章則詳細說明關西饒平客家話本身的特點以及姓氏之間的內部差異。第五章將關西饒平客家話與其他現有的饒平客家話語料如:中國饒洋、台灣卓蘭、新屋、竹北作一共時的橫向平面比較。第六章針對詞彙部分探討關西饒平客語在語言接觸的影響之下詞彙的變異情形。第七章為結論說明本研究成果與價值。
    經過研究發現,關西饒平客語各姓氏之間雖然有些微差異,但饒平客語的基本音韻現況大致相同,不過因經過兩三百年時間的消磨,語音遺失、轉變的現象在所難免,兩姓各自留下了一些饒平原鄉的語音特色,也或多或少借用了其他客家次方言如:四縣、海陸的語音。在聲母方面,饒平客語在曉組、影組具特色的v-聲母,有些字已慢慢消逝v-的讀音,而轉變為跟海陸一樣的?-聲母,如:「縣」已從vien24→?an24。在章組字也出現聲母從舌尖面音t?-演變成舌尖前音ts-的中間過渡現象,展現出t?i→t??→ts?的變化過程。在韻母上四等無介音的字也展現了原鄉饒平的特色,如:「鳥」tau24。在聲調方面,鄭屋陰入調為32,許屋則是2,而兩屋的變調規則,則是豐富多元各具特色。在詞彙上,由於受到語言接觸的影響,則分為「完全移借詞」、「部分移借詞」、「完全語音借用」、「部分語音借用」、「關西特殊詞」五部分來闡述。
    關西饒平客語的變化,除了受到對外溝通的影響,也因為在婚姻嫁娶時與其他方言或次方言族群結合的關係,使得對內交談也出現了兩種以上的語言,而後代子孫在第一語言習得時即是雙語環境,使用語言時將之融合運用也在所難免。關西饒平客家話的現狀,如同整個饒平客家話在台灣的縮影,各自保留了部分從原鄉帶來的原音,一方面也隨著環境和時代漸漸在轉變,關西各姓氏饒平客們自不同的地區移民而來,帶來了不同的鄉音,呈現饒平原鄉豐富的語音表現,並無所謂的唯一「標準音」,就如徐貴榮先生(2008)所說「台灣多元聲調才是饒平客話原貌」,關西饒平不同姓氏各自有不同的變調情形,也可與此作一對應。
    Situated in Xinzhu county, Guanxi township, previously known as“pickle urn” is a ville embraced by mountains and is inhabited mainly by Fujian (Minnan) and Hakka people. Compared with other cities in Taiwan, although more Raoping Hakka dwell there, they remain the minority of the local Hakka. Hence, Raoping Hakka is spoken only within the families or relatives and people use other powerful dialects or sub-dialects to communicate with non- Raoping Hakka. Owing to the powerful clan strength in the old times, Raoping Hakka is preserved and inherits accents from forefathers. However, it starts to transform with the mixture of other dialects and sub-dialects as a result of frequent interaction between Hakka groups in the modern times. As the clan language is circulated in a more closed-end fashion, the transformation speed and condition differ between different surnames, which gives Guanxi Raoping Hakka its diversities. This article targets on two major Raoping Hakka surnames, Zheng’s family in the inner Gua?nxi and Xu’s family in the outer Guanxi, to study the status quo of Guanxi?Raoping Hakka and its changes.
    There are seven chapters in the article. The first chapter is introduction. It specifies the study motives, targeted people, environment, study methods and related references. The second chapter depicts the initial consonant, finals, tones, homophones, etc. of Guanxi? Zheng’s and Xu’s Hakka. We compare the Guanxi? Hakka with Middle Chinese in chapter three for the chronological study. The characteristics of Guanxi Raoping Hakka and its inner differences between surnames are elucidated in chapter four. In chapter five, Guanxi?Raoping Hakka was compared with other Raoping Hakkas from different places, such as China Raoyang, Taiwan Zhuolan, Xinwu, and Zhubei for the synchronic study. In chapter six, we discuss the variation of vocabulary change of Raoping Hakka under the influence of other languages. And then we summarize the study result and its academic value in chapter seven.
    After the research, although Guanxi Raoping Hakka of different surnames has some differences, the basic phonics of Raoping Hakka is almost the same. As two or three hundred years go by, it is inevitable for the loss or transformation of the languages. Two families not only leaving some characters of pronunciation ,but also combine with other sub-dialect such as Sixian or Hailu. In the aspect of initial consonant, the characteristic initial “v” of group Xiao and group Ying in Raoping Hakka has gradually lost the pronunciation of “v” in some words, and has transformed to the initial “?” ,like Hailu? instead. For example, “Xian” has become from vien24→?an24. The group Zha?ng also appear that the initial consonant become “ts-” from “t?-”, showing the transforming process like t?i→t??→ts?. In the vowel aspect, the words of fourth divisions(deng) without medial “i” also show the character of original country of Raoping, such as “Niao” tau24. In the tone respect, the upper entering(yinru) of Zheng’s is 32 while Xu’s is 2, and the rules of changing tones are fertile with their own characters. In the words aspect, as a result of the language contact, it will be divided into five parts to elucidate, such as “total form-borrowing word” , “part form- borrowing word” , “total phonation-borrowing word”, “part phonation-borrowing word”, and “ particular words of Guanxi Raoping”.
    The changing of the” Guanxi?Raoping Hakka language”, in additional to the affect of the outward communication, has more than two kinds of languages due to the combination of the dialect and sub-dialect group when people get married. The latter generations study their first language in the bilingual environments, so it’s inevitable for them to speak combinative languages. The situation of the Guanxi Raoping Hakka, like the miniature of the Raoping Hakka in Taiwan, has kept its original pronunciation coming from original country. Besides, according to the change of the environment and times, all Guanxi?Raoping Hakka coming from different areas bring different pronunciation, which shows fertile performance of languages without one standard pronunciation. Like Dr. Xu Gui Rong said, the variety of pronunciation in Taiwan is the true color of the Raoping Hakka. Different surnames of Guanxi?Raoping with different pronunciation could also comparing with this point of view.

    目錄:

    第一章 緒 論 1
    第一節 研究動機與目的 1
    第二節 研究對象 3
    第三節 研究方法 6
    第四節 文獻探討 7
    第二章 關西饒平客家話音韻結構 15
    第一節 關西鄭屋音韻結構 15
    (一)鄭屋聲母 15
    (二)鄭屋韻母 16
    (三)鄭屋聲調 18
    第二節 關西許屋音韻結構 22
    (一)許屋聲母 22
    (二)許屋韻母 22
    (三)許屋聲調 25
    第三章 關西饒平話和中古音的比較28
    第一節 聲母部分比較 28
    第二節 韻母部分比較 46
    第三節 聲調部分比較 71
    第四章 關西饒平話特點 75
    第一節 聲母特點 75
    第二節 韻母特點 81
    第三節 聲調特點 90
    第五章 關西饒平與其他饒平的差異99
    第一節 聲母差異 99
    第二節 韻母差異 105
    第三節 聲調差異 120
    第六章 關西詞彙變化現象 126
    第一節 詞彙與語言接觸 128
    一、完全移借 128
    二、部分移借 131
    三、完全語音借用 135
    四、部分語音借用 136
    第二節 關西特殊詞 139
    第七章 結 語 146
    參考書目 152
    附 錄 156