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博碩士論文: 臺灣客家小說移民書寫之探究-以吳濁流.鍾理和.鍾肇政.李橋作品為例=An Exploration of Taiwan Hakka Novel Immigration Writing:Take the works of WU, Cho-liu, CHUNG, Li-ho, CHUNG, Chao-cheng, and LI, Chiao for Example

  • 作者:王志仁(Wang Chi Jen)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:彭瑞金(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:高雄師範大學
  • 系所名稱:客家文化研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2010
  • 畢業學年度:98
  • 頁數:150
    • 主題:客家作家-客家文學作家
    • 關鍵詞:移民、客家人、吳濁流、鍾理和、鍾肇政、李喬、祖國、殖民地
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    台灣的名稱在西方世界叫「Formosa」婆娑之洋美麗之島,在西方殖民盛行的年代,她如海上明珠點亮中國東南海域,但是在中國的文獻上卻有許許多多的名稱。最古老的名稱如記載在前漢書中的「東鯷」,臨海水土志的「夷州」,隋書的「流求」等。在崇禎年間閩地大旱,許多人不請自來,一窩蜂來到笨港依附郭懷一討生活,郭懷一來者不拒,又多指定土地開發,同時也協助組成團隊,供應所需的器材、工具、農耕種子等,在收穫時搜購銷往中國。移民者幾乎全屬男丁,極度缺乏女性,而原住民是招男子入贅的母系社會,自然而然地發展出漢人與原住民的通婚,原住民高興,漢人也高興。尚無文字的原住民與有文化的漢人生下的子女,毫無例外的都以漢人姓氏為姓氏,這也是日後平埔族逐漸消失的原因之一,從此台灣的命運就與移民脫不了干係。
    台灣是一個接受移民的島嶼,除了原住民文化外,皆是外來移民文化,其中漢人文化影響較劇,因為閩客移民佔大部分,祖國的認同當然指漢文化而言。對渡過台灣海峽的漢民族而言,中國的原鄉就是他們的根,含淚離鄉背井,只因原鄉謀生不易,冒著九死一生的危險來到台島這蠻荒之地,只為生存而已。對於文化傳承只不過是其次的問題,真正的目的就是找尋一個安身立命的地方,當台灣成為原鄉後,文化的認同與傳承就接踵而來,並與原住民文化融合形成台灣本土文化。
    原鄉移民的生活點滴在這四位作者作品中有所著墨,字裡行間充分流露先移民的精神。以鍾理和作品《原鄉人》為例,《原鄉人》提到各行各業的移民,而《原鄉人》小說人物的表現只對原鄉文化的認同,認為台灣只是暫時的並非永久居住地,沒有深耕在地文化與傳承。《原鄉人》文中所提到的人物只是短暫停留,來到這海外蠻荒之島圖個餬口,最終還是回到原鄉。
    本論文共分六章,第一章緒論、第二章台灣客家小說移民書寫—吳濁流作品中的漢民族意識與殖民地命運衝擊、第三章台灣客家小說移民書寫台灣客家小說移民書寫—鍾理和的為愛離開故鄉、第四章台灣客家小說移民書寫—鍾肇政筆下被外力擠迫出來的住民意識、第五章台灣客家小說移民書寫—李喬撰寫《寒夜》裡不能回頭的移民、第六章結論。
    第一章緒論共分四節,研究動機與目的、研究方法、研究範疇、史料探討;第二章台灣客家小說移民書寫—吳濁流作品中的漢民族意識與殖民地命運衝擊分四節:身分的迷惘、何處是故鄉—胡太民的民族夢、殖民地的命運衝擊—胡老人的悲傷、小結;第三章台灣客家小說移民書寫—鍾理和的為愛遠走原鄉分四節:為愛離開故鄉、情寄原鄉—隔海思念、原鄉夢覺—遊子的賦歸、小結;第四章台灣客家小說移民書寫—鍾肇政筆下被外力擠迫出來的住民意識分四節:移民智慧、風雨前的寧靜、外力衝擊下的移民抉擇—信海長者的慟、小結;第五章:台灣客家小說移民書寫—李喬撰寫《寒夜》裡不能回頭的移民分四節:拓荒的移民、《寒夜》描寫的客家婦女圖像、土地的執著—彭阿強的抗爭、小結;第六章結論分三節:由漢民族迷思到住民自覺、移民的圖象、清末到日治後的演變。
    本論文以文本分析及歷史方法論中史料分析作為論述的方法,對移民形象作一個比較,較以往的研究有所不同。以往的研究著重文學分析與語言分析,或是女性形象分析,而本論文論述是以移民形象作主軸,討論台灣移民的形象。
    本論文研究範圍內容以充滿移民的在地精神為研究範疇,因為離開原鄉就失去祖國的屏障,唯有努力往前,雖然失去開拓先機,也秉持開創者的心境不畏辛勞,努力與環境、原住民抗爭,表現客家不畏艱辛的一面。
    第一章的緒論中討論本論文研究方式,以史料資料及文本內容討論原鄉移民的原像,經歷了明清兩朝的文化洗禮及日本文化的思想殖民,臺灣所呈現的原鄉原像保存了原有的,還是融合了在地與外來呈現新臺灣文化,這都是往後章節論述的重點。
    第二章討論的是吳濁流作品,在他的作品《亞細亞的孤兒》所訴說的是一個知識青年的故事,故事內容從嚮往祖國甚至親身在中國、日本生活,最後絕望而回國。自己的身份不明,無法得到中國、日本認同,回到故鄉備受歧視,以瘋狂收場。影射台灣的國際身份,徘徊在國家歸屬的十字路口上,產生國家認同錯誤。
    第三章討論的是鍾理和作品,在他的作品《原鄉人》所訴說的是一個自己家族的故事,也是自己的經歷。從嚮往祖國甚至親身在東北生活,最後絕望而回國。把中國當作自己的宗主國,換來的是絕望與傷心,原來中國用另一種眼光看待台灣的人民,讓現在對中國充滿幻想的執政者有提壺灌頂的作用。
    第四章討論的鍾肇政的作品《沈淪》,文本內容充滿移民的辛酸與奮鬥的過程。《沈淪》討論一個家族在面臨困境與時代變遷時,應該留在原鄉還是,舉家遷移回原鄉,該主角所表現的是不安與惶恐,也將移民的心境呈現出來。
    第五章討論的李喬的作品《寒夜》,文本內容充滿移民拓墾的過程與地主的關係。討論一群農民,面臨辛苦開墾的土地淪為大地主的所有,由自耕農淪為佃農後,努力抗爭,保留土地所有權的奮鬥。不只與天爭更要與人爭。該主角對土地的情懷,是希望與未來,當希望與未來被剝奪時,當然要把命拼,也將移民移墾對土地的執著著墨詳細外,並對《寒夜》中的客家婦女圖像加以討論。
    第六章結論《亞細亞的孤兒》祖籍的漂流;《原鄉人》原鄉漂流到人生體驗;《沈淪》原鄉移民因戰亂的影響,產生去與留及所衍生的家族問題;《寒夜》對土地的紮根、住民自決及土地情懷等的寒夜先民,都是台灣這數百年來的移民型態,這也是至今和中國切不斷的宿命,透過這四位作者著作可以瞭解現在執政者對中國的不捨,瞭解移民者的辛內心世界。
    In the West, Taiwan is called “Formosa”, which means beautiful island. In the colonial period, as a sea pearl, Taiwan lighted up the south-eastern part of China. However, it was called in many other ways according to China literatures. For example, its most ancient names include “Eastern Ti” recorded on Historical Records of the Former Han Dynasty, “Yizhou” on Seaboard Geographic Gazetteer, “Liuqiu” on The History of Suei Dynasty, and so on. During Chongzhen Period of Ming Dynasty, there was severe drought in Fukien, and many people went to Ponkan to seek help from Guo Huai-i and make a living. Guo Huai-I granted favors to everyone came to him, had them cultivate the land. Meanwhile he helped to organize teams, offered required materials, tools, seeds, etc. He purchased the harvest and then sold it to China. Most immigrants were males, and females were extremely a lack at that time. Native aborigine happens to be a matriarchal society which accepts a live-in son-in-law. Naturally, the Han people began to marry aborigines, and it satisfied both aborigines and Han people. With no exception, the children of aborigine without characters and cultured Han people have Han surnames, and this partly led to vanishing of Pingpu Tribe. From then on, the fate of Taiwan is closely related to immigration.
    Taiwan is an immigrant society, except for the aboriginal culture, Taiwan is full of immigrant cultures. Among them, Han culture posed a deeper influence. Because most immigrants came from Fukien, when it comes to motherland identity, surely Han culture would be recognized. For the Han people crossing Taiwan Strait for living, China is their native land where they came from. They tore themselves away from their native land and took the dangerous risk to come to uncultivated Taiwan, all they yearned for is survivorship. The cultural pass-down is a minor issue. The real purpose is to find a shelter for the life and the spirit. Culture identity and inheritance followed after Taiwan became the native place; the fusion of Han culture and aboriginal culture began to shape Taiwan local culture.
    The works of the four authors present meticulous descriptions of immigrant living in Taiwan and emigrants' spirit between the lines. Take “My Native Land”, the work of CHUNG, Li-ho, for example. “My Native Land” mentioned the immigrants from every walk of life. The characters in “My Native Land” only recognize their native culture, and they think Taiwan is a temporary living place, but not permanent; they are not willing to cultivate and pass-down local culture. The characters in “My Native Land” come to uncultivated Taiwan just for a short stay and making a living. At last, they still go back to their native land.
    This research is composed of six chapters, including Chapter One: Introduction; Chapter Two: Hakka Novel Immigration Writing – Han People’s Consciousness of WU, Chou-liu and Impact on Colony Fate; Chapter Three: Hakka Novel Immigration Writing –Wander for Love in Native Land of CHUNG, Li-ho; Chapter Four: Hakka Novel Immigration Writing – Residents Consciousness Wakened by External Force in the Work of CHUNG, Chao-cheng; Chapter Five: Hakka Novel Immigration Writing – Immigrants of No Turning Back in the Work of Wintry Night by LI, Chiao, and Chapter Six: Conclusion.
    Chapter One comprises four sections, including research motive and purpose, research method, research scope, and material investigation. Chapter Two: Hakka Novel Immigration Writing - Han Consciousness of WU, Chou-liu and Impact on Colony Fate, comprises four sections, including identity confusion, where is the hometown – the nation dream of HU, Tai-min, impact on colony fate – HU’s sadness, and summary. Chapter Three: Hakka Novel Immigration Writing –Wander for love in Native Land of CHUNG, Li-ho, comprises four sections, including abandon the native land because of love – the beautiful scenery of homeland; missing native place from far away, awakening from the dream of native land – going home, and summary. Chapter Four: Hakka Novel Immigration Writing –Residents Consciousness Wakened by External Force in the Work of CHUNG, Chao-cheng, comprises four sections, including Immigration wisdom, the calm before the storm, immigration decision under external impact – the grief of Elder Hsin-hai, and summary. Chapter Five: Hakka Novel Immigration Writing–Immigrants of No Turning Back in the Work of Wintry Night by LI, Chiao, comprises four sections, including immigrants reclamation, image descriptions of Hakka women in Wintry Night, persistence in land – PENG, A-chiang’s struggle and summary. Chapter Six: There are three sections in the conclusion including Han People’s Confusion to Residents Consciousness, images of immigrantsx and the Evolution from late Ching Dynasty to Japanese Occupation.
    This research adopts textual analysis and historical methodology as the way to discuss to compare the immigrant image, which makes it different from the existing researches. The past researches emphasize on analyzing literature, language, or female image. However, immigrant image poses the main structure of this research, which put focus on discussing immigrant image in Taiwan.
    The research scope is local immigration spirit. Once one leaves the native land, he will lose the protection from his nation, and all he can do is striving for living. Despite lacking preemptive opportunities to cultivate the land, the immigrants labor extremely hard to fight the environment and native aborigine, demonstrating industriousness and stamina of Hakka people.
    The Introduction in Chapter One discusses the research method. This research discusses the original image of immigrants through archives text content. Experiencing cultural immersion of Ming and Ching Dynasty, and the Japanese colonization, it is an emphasis in the following chapters that whether Taiwan keeps original image or presents new Taiwan culture by fusing local and foreign cultures.
    Chapter Two discusses the works of WU, Chou-Liu. “Orphan of Asia” is a story about an educated youth. Yearning for national homeland, he goes to and lives in China and Japan, and finally comes back to Taiwan in despair. He is unidentified and cannot be recognized in China and Japan. After coming back to hometown, he suffers discrimination, and goes insane at the end of story. It implies Taiwan’s identity in the world. Walking back and forth at the cross road of national loyalty leads to confusion of national identity.
    Chapter Three discusses the works of CHUNG, Li-ho. “My Native Land” is a story about his personal family and experiences. From yearning for national homeland, going to and living in Northeast China, to coming back to Taiwan in despair, he views China as his imperial nation, but all he gets in the end is despair and grief. The truth is that China treats Taiwan people from another position, and it can be a warn to the present authorities yearning for China.
    Chapter Four discusses the works of CHUNG, Chao-cheng. “Sinking Down” is full of immigrants’ distress and fighting. “Sinking Down” talks about that when a family faces the distress and change of the time, whether it should stay where it is, or move back to its native land. This novel presents the terror and upset of leading characters and immigrants’ mental state.
    Chapter Five discusses “Wintry Night”, the work of LI, Chiao. The text content is full of immigrants’ cultivation process and the relationship with the landlord. The story is about a group of farmers who cultivate lands, but the lands become the belonging of a landlord. When they are changed into tenant-farmers, they start to fight hard for the ownership of land. The immigrants fight not only the environment but also the landlord. The leading characters build their hope and future on the land, and when they are deprived of their hope and future, they surely exert their utmost strength to fight. This work makes a deep depiction on immigrants’ persistence on the land.
    Chapter Six: Conclusion summarizes the floating native land in “Orphan of Asia”, wander in native land to life experiences in “My Native Land”, the problems caused to the family when immigrants choose to stay or leave under the influence of war in “Sinking Down”, settling down, self-determination of the ancestors and feelings for land in “Wintry Night”. All these are typical immigration features in Taiwan for these hundreds of years, and also they make Taiwan hard to cut away from China so far. Through the works of the four authors, we understand why present authorities have a native land complex to China and immigrants’ distressing inner world.

    目錄:

    第一章 緒論 …………………………………………1
    第一節 研究動機與目的…………………………………………2
    第二節 研究方法 …………………………………………5
    第三節 研究範圍 …………………………………………6
    第四節 史料探討 …………………………………………9
    第二章 台灣客家小說移民書寫分析—吳濁流的漢民族意識
    與殖民地命運衝擊……………16
    第一節 身份的迷惘 …………………………………………17
    一、身份的模糊與迷失 …………………………………19
    二、胡老人的故國情懷 …………………………………22
    三、模糊的焦點—民族意識 ………………………………23
    第二節 何處是故鄉—胡太明的民族夢 ………………………25
    一、私塾教育薰陶下的祖國情 ……………………………26
    二、差異—台灣人與日本人 ……………………………28
    三、母親的輪廓—前清移民的迷思 ………………………30
    第三節 殖民地的命運衝擊—胡老人的悲 ……………………32
    一、遙不可及的「漢民族」思想 ………………………33
    二、新舊思潮的激盪 …………………………………35
    三、逝去的舊傳統 ………………………………37
    第四節 小 結 …………………………………………39
    第三章 台灣客家小說移民書寫分析—鍾理和的為愛離開故鄉 ……45
    第一節 為愛離開故鄉 ……………………………………………48
    一、大武山的新移民圖 ……………………………………49
    二、白薯的悲哀 ………………………………51
    三、春去秋來的候鳥 ………………………………………53
    第二節 情寄原鄉—隔海相思 ……………………………………54
    一、來自原鄉的祖籍 ………………………………………55
    二、我們是何人? ………………………………………56
    三、原鄉的孺慕之情 ………………………………………58
    第三節 原鄉夢覺—遊子賦歸 ……………………………………60
    一、失敗者的驕傲 ………………………………………60
    二、原鄉的印象 ………………………………………62
    三、覺醒—生命的體會 ……………………………………63
    第四節 小 結 …………………………………………………66
    第四章 台灣客家小說移民書寫分析—鍾肇政筆下被外力擠迫出來
    的住民意識 ………70
    第一節 移民智慧 …………………………………………………72
    一、陸家祖先的智慧 ………………………………………73
    二、土地的情懷 ……………………………………………74
    三、風火下的香火傳承 ……………………………………76
    第二節 風雨前的寧靜 ……………………………………………78
    一、暴雨將至—馬關條約的遺棄 …………………………80
    二、甜蜜的勞碌 …………………………………………81
    三、統治者的轉變 …………………………………………84
    第三節 外力衝擊下的移民決擇—信海長者的慟 ………………87
    一、仕途之路 ……………………………………………88
    二、家族維繫 ……………………………………………91
    三、抉擇 ……………………………………………92
    第四節 小結 …………………………………………………94
    第五章 台灣客家小說移民書寫—李喬撰寫《寒夜》裡不能回的移民
    ………97
    第一節 拓荒的移民 ………………………………………100
    一、披荊斬棘 ……………………………………………102
    二、墾戶 ………………………………………………104
    三、移墾下的衝突 ………………………………………107
    第二節 《寒夜》描寫的客家婦女圖像 ……………………114
    一、刻苦耐勞 ………………………………………115
    二、生命的價值 ………………………………………106
    三、交換的婚姻 ………………………………………118
    第三節 土地的執著—彭阿強的抗爭 ……………………………119
    一、生存根本—土地 …………………………………124
    二、外地人的故鄉—佃農的覺醒 ………………………126
    三、彭阿強的希望 ………………………………………127
    第四節 小結 ……………………………………………………129
    第六章 結論 ………………………………………………………131
    第一節 由漢民族迷思到住民自覺 ………………………………132
    一、跳脫漢民族迷思 ……………………………………133
    二、原鄉的幻象與祖國幻想 …………………………134
    三、生活的現實 …………………………………………135
    四、土地的紮根 …………………………………………136
    第二節 移民圖象 ……………………………………………137
    一、迷思與夢醒 …………………………………………138
    二、生命與生活 ………………………………………139
    三、血濃於「土」 …………………………………………141
    四、衛土戰爭 …………………………………………144
    第三節 清末到日治後的文化演變 ……………………………144