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博碩士論文: 《落水天》、《大埔調》、《正月牌》、《半山謠》、《喊我唱歌就唱歌》之樂曲分析與詮釋~兼論客家民歌所呈現之傳統客家的婦女形象=Interpretation and analysis of《Rainy Day》, 《Ta-Pu tunes》, 《First Month Song》, 《Half-Mountain Folk Song》,《If You Ask Me I Will Song》 and dissertation on the image of traditional Hakka women as seen through Hakka Folk songs

  • 作者:彭月媛(研究生)
  • 其他作者:許昭惠(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:臺北市立教育大學
  • 系所名稱:音樂藝術研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2007
  • 畢業學年度:95
  • 頁數:60
    • 主題:客家聲音紀錄-其他
    • 關鍵詞:客家民歌、山歌、九腔十八調、民歌、The term folk songs、Hakka folk songs、nine tones and eighteen accents
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    山歌這個名詞一般學者都公認起自唐朝竹枝詞,並以竹枝詞做為山歌的起源。李益說:『無奈孤舟夕,山聞竹枝。』便是一例;也因山歌源於竹枝詞,所以山歌主要形式便是七言四句,它的特色是一句七字,四句落板,而且平仄分明,演唱時都是隨機從口而出;俚言俗語,充滿質樸而不造作之鄉土風味。客家山歌小調在傳統表演藝術與社會文化上,皆有其獨具的特殊性,傳統客家人因遷徙而多居住在靠山的地方,又以務農為主,無論是墾山或耕種,生活總是與自然為伍。山歌源自鄉野山林,是客家先民在從事耕種或閒暇時所隨興創作出來的音樂,處處可以見到對生活的描寫以及愛情的歌詠,生活中的喜、怒、哀、樂完全表現在客家山歌的創作上。在演唱時,講究嗓音的高亢、嘹亮,以表達原始奔放的情感,同時也強調聲腔之韻味,以配合語言的特質。
       客家人的山歌,原本也許只是一種單調的歡呼或唉嘆,到後來為了配合採茶、挑擔、耕種等勞動工作而唱出曲調自娛,或者是與山嶺之間一起來勞動的夥伴相互鼓勵,相互問候的韻律性旋律;有時又是為了呼朋引伴,或吸引異性而相互調侃、哼唱情歌,又或者是為了與對山的朋友高聲談話,而讓簡單的韻律性旋律逐漸演變成更完整的曲調歌聲,並慢慢形成所謂的山歌。
    山歌以獨唱和對唱最常見。其中「獨唱」以抒發心情為主,「對唱」的演唱方式,則源於戶外生活,在廣闊的山林田野,或播種、插秧、除草、割稻時,看見附近田野也有人在工作,於是以高聲歌唱問候,對方聞聽後開始呼應答腔,用歌聲你來我往,從問名道姓開始,然後閒聊問候,「或互勸、或相罵、或調情」總之,能用對唱的方式達到對話的目的。
    台灣客家民歌的唱腔素有「九腔十八調」之稱,所謂「腔」是指根據特定語言發展出來的歌樂系統,發展目的經常是為了配合戲曲演出,而曲腔的起源又可分為「山歌腔」和「採茶腔」兩大類,另外流傳於各地的民謠小調,也被吸收運用於戲曲音樂中,此外,藝人於演唱時,除了既定的劇本歌詞外,還運用許多虛字及襯字來作為行腔轉韻的利器,運用時無特別規範,並具個人特色。
    在客家社群中,女性地位一再受到男性與傳統環境影響,客家文化傳統認為女性為家庭之附屬品,附屬於家庭和孩子,然隨著社會多元化,以及受教程度增加,女性雖從傳統窠臼中解放出來,但除了承擔傳統家務工作外,更需要調適整職業婦女角色;身為客家女性,深深感受到客家婦女常藉由客家民歌表現自己的情感、生活、熱情、希望…,無不令人動容,因此藉由對客家歌謠中較具代表性的「落水天」、「大埔調」、「正月牌」、「半山謠」、「喊我唱歌就唱歌」等客家民歌曲目做進一步的分析,並藉此探討客家民歌中所呈現的傳統客家婦女形象。
    The term, folk songs, are commonly believed by the scholars are from the Essay of Bamboo-stem in Tang Dynasty as the origin of folk songs. An example is being alone on a boat without a choice in the sunset, hearing the bamboo-stem in mountains by Lee Yi. Because of such an origin, the main form of the folk songs is seven characters in four sentences with characteristics of seven characters in a sentence and four sentences luo ban with clear distinction between level and oblique tones. Singers sing randomly with dialects and common sayings in plain local flavor. Hakka folk songs minors have their unique specialty in traditional performance art and social culture. Traditional Hakka people lived close to mountains after immigrating to Taiwan. They have been engaged in agriculture and lived by the mountains when cultivating the mountains or the lands. Folk songs are from countryside and mountains. They are the music created by early Hakka people in cultivation or during the free time. We can see their description of life and praise of love with happiness, anger, sadness and delight in the folk songs. Loud, sonorous and resonant voices are important in singing folk songs to express the primitive and unrestrained feelings. Singers also focus on the charm of acoustic cavity to match the quality of the language.
    Folk songs of Hakka people used to merely monotonous cheer or sigh. Later on, they entertained themselves with the songs in tealeaves picking, load carrying and cultivation. Sometimes they encouraged one another when they had physical labor in mountains in greeting melodies. To call their friends or attract the other genders, they sang love songs. Or they would talk to their friends in mountains loudly. The simple rhythmic melodies turned to be complete songs and then gradually the folk songs we have now.
    Vocal solo and antiphonal singing are the most common in folk songs. The former expresses the moods while the latter is originated from outdoor life. In the wide open fields in mountains, cultivation, transplanting rice seedlings, weeding, and rice cutting, when they saw people working in the fields, Hakka people greeted them in loud songs. They responded in songs, too. From asking names, they chatted or persuaded, scolded or flirted. They sang as having dialogues.
    There have been nine tones and eighteen accents. The tones refer to a certain vocal music system developed from a particular language with the purpose to perform in dramas. The musical tones origin can be divided into folk songs tones and tealeaves picking tones. Ballads spread everywhere were also used in drama music. Moreover, when singing, performers use a lot of function words as for tone and rhyme transfer in addition to the lyrics on the script. There is no particular norm on this and performers can exert their characteristics.
    In Hakka community, status of women had been affected by men and the traditional environment. Women have been regarded as subordinates to families and children. Thanks to the diversification of the society and higher education, women are freed from the traditional stereotype. However, besides taking care of the household chores, they need to adapt themselves to the role of career women. As a Hakka woman, I have always experienced the feelings, life, enthusiasm and hope of Hakka women through folk songs. This is very touching. Therefore, the researcher would like to have further analysis on representative Hakka songs, Sky of Falling Water, Dapu Tone, Full Moon Pai, Terrace Song, I Sing upon Your Request, etc to explore the image of traditional Hakka women in the Hakka folk songs.

    目錄:

    第一章 緒論
    第一節 研究動機與目的 ………………………………………1
    第二節 研究範圍與方法…………………………………………2
    第三節 文獻探討 ………………………………………………2
    第二章 客家民歌的傳唱
    第一節 何謂民歌 ………………………………………………7
    第二節 客家民歌的腔與調 ……………………………………10
    第三節 客家民歌探源 …………………………………………12第四節 客家民歌的伴奏樂器與伴奏模式 ……………………13
    第五節 客家民歌在演唱中的特殊風貌與演唱技巧 …………14
    第三章 《落水天》、《大埔調》、《正月牌》、《半山謠》、《喊我唱歌就唱歌》之樂曲分析與詮釋
    第一節 《落水天》樂曲分析與詮釋 …………………………18
    第二節 《大埔調》樂曲分析與詮釋 …………………………23
    第三節 《正月牌》樂曲分析與詮釋 …………………………27
    第四節 《半山謠》樂曲分析與詮釋 …………………………31
    第五節 《喊我唱歌就唱歌》樂曲分析與詮釋 ………………35

    第四章 客家民歌中所呈現之傳統客家婦女形象
    第一節 客家民歌中呈現的族群寫實 …………………………38
    第二節 權力落差下的兩性關係…………………………………40
    第三節 客家婦女之間的關係…………………………………41
    第四節 時代變遷中客家婦女的今與昔…………………………42
    第五章 結論 …………………………………………………………43
    參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………44
    附錄一 …………………………………………………………………46
    附錄二 …………………………………………………………………48
    附錄三 …………………………………………………………………50
    附錄四 …………………………………………………………………54
    附錄五 …………………………………………………………………57