博碩士論文： 東南亞的「客家」意涵 : 英殖民馬來亞的華人分類過程=The Connotation of “Hakka” in Southeast Asia: The Classification Process of Chinese in British Malaya.
本研究的主旨在於說明十九世紀英殖民馬來亞的「客家」與華人「方言群」出現的因素與情境。歷史社會學研究輔助於原始歷史資料：海峽殖民地官方原始書信檔案（Straits Settlements Original Correspondence, CO 273）乃本論文的研究方法。本研究將由下列論述所構成：（一）「客家」與華人「方言群」如何於英殖民馬來亞政府對華人進行分類的過程中出現；（二）1870年代英殖民馬來亞政府制度的形成及其對華人秘密會社之鎮壓；（三）「族群理論」對詮釋「東南亞客家」的適用性，以及（四）現有的既存文獻對「客家」的後設理論，其中包涵中國、台灣與東南亞之「客家」。總括來說，十九世紀英殖民馬來亞的「客家」及其意涵乃先始於英國殖民政府對秘密會社之鎮壓，後建構自英殖民政府對馬來亞華人進行制度化的分類過程；然而，英殖民馬來亞的統治模式與族群分類亦同時受到「在地化」以及「跨國性殖民」的影響，進而形成辯證性的制度化過程。
What does it mean about “Hakka”in Southeast Asia? In contemporary Taiwan Hakka Studies, majority of authors tended to define the “Southeast Asian Hakka as a form of “ethnic group”; while some revealed the Hakka identity and consciousness among Southeast Asian Hakka as “underdeveloped ethnicity”. These statements usually meant a contemporary viewpoint which derived from the theories of ethnicity. However, such statements should be linked with the historical and political formation of different social structures within Southeast Asia countries. These statements, likewise, have contributed to the objective of this research in probing the connotation of “Hakka” in Southeast Asia.
The purpose of this research is to elucidate the factors and circumstances leading to the emergence of “Hakka” and various Chinese dialect groups with particular reference to those in British Malaya during the nineteenth century. Sociological and historical studies assisted with first hand historical materials- Straits Settlements Original Correspondence in series CO 273 - were adopted in this research. This research is composed by several arguments. First, the emergence of the term“Hakka” and other Chinese dialect groups in the classification process of Chinese in British Malaya. Second, the suppression of Chinese secret societies by British colonial regulations and institutions during the 1870s. Third, the practicability of theory “ethnic group”in defining the“Southeast Asian Hakka”. Forth, the metatheory of various publications pertaining to “Hakka”in China, Taiwan and Southeast Asia. In conclusion, the connotations of“Hakka”in British Malaya were closely related with the internationality and localization of colonial experiences and implementation of political institutions for British Colonial Empire during nineteenth century. The connotation of“Hakka”in British Malaya was first formed through an instituted classification process of “Chinese”in relating to the formation of British colonial regulations and institutions in suppressing the Chinese secret societies as “Kheh” in Hokkien dialect; while substituted by the term “Hakka” in Cantonese dialect during 1931. Subsequently,“Hakka”has emerged for the census purpose of British Malaya while eventually became one of the“dialect groups”within Chinese society in present Malaysia and Singapore. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the classification process of“Chinese”and the emergence of “Hakka”in British Malaya during the nineteenth century does not presume and preclude the formation of others in the region of Southeast Asia at the same level.
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF MAPS
LIST OF FIGURES
1 INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS “HAKKA”?
1.1 Definitions of “Hakka” in General
1.2 Theoretical Background of Metatheory
1.3 Research Background: What is “Hakka” in Southeast Asia?
1.3.1 Southeast Asia Studies
1.3.2 Overseas Chinese Studies
18.104.22.168 Early Publications
22.214.171.124 Contemporary Publications
1.3.3 Hakka Studies
2 DISCOVERY OF “HAKKA” IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
2.1 “Ethnic Group” in Defining “Southeast Asian Hakka”
2.1.1 The Rise of Ethnicity
2.1.2 Approaches to Ethnicity
2.1.3 The Emergence of “Ethnic Group” in Present Taiwan and Malaysia
2.2 Chinese in Malaya
2.2.1 Coolie Trade and Secret Societies
2.2.2 Dialect Group and Bang in Malaya
2.2.3 Chinese “Race” and “Tribe” in British Malaya
3 THE FORMATION OF BRITISH MALAYA
3.1 Early European Powers in Southeast Asia
3.2 The Formation of British Malaya: Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States and Unfederated Malay States
3.3 Domination of Commercial Agriculture and Tin Mining in Making of Plural Society
3.4 Population and Distribution in British Malaya
3.4.1 Population and Distribution: Chinese and Other Races
3.4.2 Population and Distribution: “Chinese Tribes”
4 THE PROCESS OF CHINESE CLASSIFICATION IN BRITISH MALAYA
4.1 Chinese Riots and Problems during the 1870s
4.1.1 Chinese Riots and Problems in Straits Settlements
4.1.2 Considerations of British Colonial Officials to Regulate Chinese in British Malaya
4.2 Implementation of Regulation and Institution
4.2.1 Implementation of “Chinese Immigrant Ordinance”
4.2.2 British Colonial Precaution in Quelling the Chinese Riots
4.2.3 Establishment of “Chinese Protectorate”
4.2.4 Scheme for Chinese Interpreters
4.2.5 Registration of Secret Societies and Implementation of“Societies Ordinance”
4.2.6 Establishment of Government Examination Depòts
4.3 Impacts of British Colonial Regulation and Institution
5 CONCLUSION: THE CONNOTATION OF “HAKKA” IN BRITISH MALAYA
1: The Earliest Chinese Voluntary Association in Malaya, 1801-1870.
2: Durations of Voyages from China Ports to Straits Settlements.
3: Petition from Chinese Merchants in 1871.
4: Petition from Chinese Merchants in 1873.
5: The Chinese Immigrant Ordinance, 1873.
6: Collection of Colonial Office Files in series CO 273.
7: Ownership of European and Chinese in Malaya Tin production, 1910-1938.
8: Chinese Immigrant Ships Coming Direct from China and Hong Kong to Singapore in 1895.
9: Petition from European Merchants, 1874.