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研究成果: 美濃地區菸樓空間營造之研究=The Research on Spatial Construction of Meinung Tobacco Buildings

  • 作者:鍾兆生(Jhong, Jhao-Sheng)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:李允斐(Lee, Yun-Fei)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:樹德科技大學 
  • 系所名稱:建築與古蹟維護研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2004
  • 畢業學年度:92
  • 頁數:202
    • 主題:古蹟及歷史建築-橋樑及產業設施
    • 關鍵詞:美濃、菸樓、空間營造、社會實踐、保存、Meinung、tobacco building、spatial construction、social praxis、preservation
    • 國家:臺灣
    • 城市:高雄縣
    • 地點:美濃鎮

      摘要:

      本研究是一篇以「美濃地區菸樓建築空間為例」的研究,尤其在經過「產業消失」及「生活型態改變」後,〝後菸業時代〞的美濃地區居民會如何在空間上進行社會實踐,透過菸農對於自家菸樓空間的營造,及美濃在地知識份子所發起的菸樓保存運動為例,尋找兩者之間對於菸樓空間保存及再利用的動機、出發點、面臨的問題及實踐的過程。透過田野調查,研究結果表明以下三點:

      第一,在田野普查方面,美濃鎮目前尚存形制完整的菸樓數量為「421」棟,部份拆除或損毀的為「402」棟,有「991」棟完全拆除或改建為其他用途。對於菸樓空間概念的認知,菸農利用在地語言使用的延續性,透過建築形式、材料變化、菸戶的勞動分工來進行辨識,概念的認知隨著美濃菸作社會的變遷而造成空間機能的延續,形塑出美濃地區多元的在地菸作口語文化,當菸樓空間功能消失之後,小屋意象變成是菸樓空間的象徵符碼,象徵性主要是透過菸農在菸樓內部的勞動體驗而形成。

      第二,在空間營造方面,菸農傾向於菸樓的「二次發展」,藉由菸作資本的積累,在興造過程中累積經驗,把自身的勞動經驗實踐在空間的營造上,但內心對於菸業的懼怕,卻渴求獲得觀能上的解脫,菸農情緒性的去物化菸作勞動所產生的各種以人為出發點的勞動行為語彙,透過此種抽象元素的營造,來達到內心的撫慰。當菸樓受制於殖民規範的影響而產生制式化的空間模矩時,菸農在二次興造時營建出利於自身勞動方式的建置手法,減弱了匠師開展技藝競逐的動機,空間營造必須透過菸農的勞動行為來作為考量基礎,而衍生出的菸作經濟利益才是其共同競逐的目標。

      第三,在社會實踐方面,菸業的殖民化迫使著菸農內心固守的傳統空間體制產生了變異,空間形式因為勞動需求而被轉化,但菸農透過「擬化」的手法來尊崇其本應固守的傳統空間體制。產業的消失間接的造成菸樓空間功能被取代,對於菸樓的保存,菸農生活型態的轉變,造成其對於空間維護的態度產生變化,當菸農主體行為進入菸樓內部活動的時候,選擇一個最貼近主體生活行為的空間使用,是菸農修復菸樓遵守的模式。

      知識份子透過情感式的記憶、鄉愁,去建構其未能參與菸作勞動過程的缺憾,其希冀透過菸作勞動的集體性及相互性來延續菸作文化精神,未顧及產業的變遷已造成菸農生活型態的改變,導致於其保存做法是以空間形制的完整性,來作為延續菸作文化的出發點,卻未考慮到功能實用主義的觀點。研究者認為,透過菸農主體生活行為觀點來考量,才是破除知識份子心中以小屋意象作為菸樓保存中心思想論述的合理性操作模式。
      The research is based on the architectural space of Meinung tobacco buildings, particularly on how the Meinung residents utilized spaces for the social praxis in the post-tobacco industry after the wane of the tobacco industry and the change of life style. From the examples that tobacco farmers constructed spaces from their own tobacco buildings and local intelligentsias promoted the movement to preserve the tobacco buildings, it is to study the recycling motion, starting point, faced problems and procedures between both. From the fieldwork, three main findings of the study were as follows:

      First of all, the fieldwork indicates that there are four hundred and twenty-one tobacco buildings that are well preserved while there are four hundred and two damaged and nine hundred and ninety-one demolished completely or reconstructed for other usage. Regarding the conception of the spatial space of the tobacco buildings, tobacco farmers apply to extend the usage of the local language via the architectural form, the changes in materials and the division of tobacco labor. This conception comes from the social vicissitudes in Meinung tobacco production that turned into the extension for spatial function and formed the variety of spoken culture in Meinung area. After the spatial function of the tobacco building was waned, the image of the tobacco barns became the spatial symbol. The symbolization was formed mainly from the working experience that the tobacco farmers made inside the tobacco buildings.

      Secondly, in the conception of the spatial construction, tobacco farmers were prone to re-develop the tobacco buildings. They had accumulated their own labor experience from tobacco production and applied it to reconstruct spaces. However, they were afraid of tobacco production and desired to release it from the operation. Their emotional dematerialization in tobacco production turned into the working behavioral vocabularies that were stated for human. They appease their inside motion via forming this kind of abstract elements. When the tobacco buildings were affected by the colonial rules, it caused the limitation in space. In the reconstruction of tobacco buildings, the tobacco farmers set it approach to their own usage which had debilitated the motivation that the craftsmen improved their skills. The spatial construction must be based on farmer’s behavior to achieve the target of generating the economic effect.

      Thirdly, tobacco farmers were forced to change their existing traditional spatial system by colonized tobacco industry from the social praxis. Spatial forms were changed by labor demand, but tobacco farmers respected their own traditional spatial system through imitating method. The wane of tobacco industry was an indirect cause of the replacement of spatial function of tobacco buildings. Regarding the preservation in tobacco buildings and the transition of farmers in life style, both had caused the different attitude in spatial preservation. When tobacco farmers acted inside the tobacco buildings, they followed the preserving style which was the closest approach to use space.

      The intelligentsias recovered their regretful feeling that could not participate in the labor procedure by their emotional memory and homesickness. They wished to prolong the culture of the tobacco production by its cooperation and mutuality. However, the transition in tobacco industry which the intelligentsias ignored had caused the changes in life style of the tobacco farmers. It had resulted in the starting point to extend tobacco culture by preserving complete spatial system but did not consider the functionalism. The researcher considers that it is a reasonable proceeding form that the intelligentsias update their main ideas in the image of the tobacco barns and replace to the respect of the tobacco farmers in life style.

      目錄:請點選以下目次顯示內容

      第一章 緒論 01
      一、研究目的 01
      二、研究時地、對象與範疇的界定 03
      三、研究方法與分析架構 04

      第二章 文獻回顧 07
      一、國內外相關研究情況 07
      二、重要參考文獻之評述 10

      第三章 菸樓普查現象 13
      一、菸樓之本土概念 13
      二、菸樓數量之消長 22
      三、菸樓空間之分布 28

      第四章 殖民主義空間之異地重構 37
      一、菸作產業制約下的菸樓空間營造 37
      二、菸樓的社會功能與象徵表現 72
      三、菸作機械化的接受與抗拒 93

      第五章 菸樓空間營造之社會實踐 107
      一、傳統空間體制的固守與變異 107
      二、菸農主體營造的菸樓保存模式 118
      三、社會啟蒙教育的菸樓保存運動 139

      第六章 結論 165
      一、結論 165
      二、後續研究 168

      附錄 169
      參考文獻 199