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研究成果: 外省客家人的本土化:以廣東陸豐莊氏宗親會為例=The Localization of the Waisheng-Hakkas: A Case Study of the Zhuang Clan Association from Lu-feng County

  • 作者:彭芊琪(Chian-Chi Peng)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:楊聰榮(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立中央大學 
  • 系所名稱:客家社會文化研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2005
  • 畢業學年度:94
  • 頁數:195
    • 主題:信仰-其他
    • 關鍵詞:客家、外省人、本土化、宗族、宗親會、移民、族群、族群認同、擂茶、陸豐、localization、indigenization、kinship、Clan Association、immigrant、ethnicity、ethnic identity、Lu-feng、Hakka、mainlander
    • 國家:臺灣

      摘要:

      臺灣四大族群論述的出現,將同一族群內部均質化,談及本土化,外省人普遍被認為是受排斥的一群,對臺灣本土化的適應也會有困難。但是,本論文的研究對象--莊氏宗親會的成員,戰後由廣東省移入,因而具有外省與客家身份,在本土化的過程中,是不是會比一般外省人適應良好,是本文所關心的問題。本文主要以口述訪談與電話訪談等方法進行研究,而本土化分為兩個部分來觀察,一為他們來臺的土著化過程,另一為臺灣興起以政治為核心的本土化運動,他們的適應情況為何。
      研究發現,莊氏宗親會為宗族性質的組織,成員少數是隨政府來臺的軍公人員,其他主要是因中國戰亂,於1948年隨著宗親網絡移民臺灣,在經濟、生活等方面,較一般外省人更早土著化,且客家身份亦發揮助力。他們來臺後就有宗族聚會,而1980年才正式化為宗親會,從其成立者的身份與當時社會氛圍看來,很可能是在臺灣意識崛起下,試圖拉近臺灣與中國的關係,是一種反本土化的表現。然而,對於大部分的宗親而言,宗親會主要是慎終追遠、養生送死或聯絡感情的功能,在臺灣有了這樣的組織,反而使他們的心裡產生依靠,促其對臺灣的認同,並且在宗親聚會中,強化了他們的客家身份。
      所以,1990年代臺灣本土化運動在各方面展開,他們的移民網絡和客家身份,都成了他們適應本土化的助力,在族群認同上,因為和臺灣客家人的融合,所以,他們也可以認同自己是臺灣的客家人,而且政府推行的本土化策略,對於他們不但沒有排斥性,他們本有的擂茶還提供了建構臺灣客家文化的元素。
      The discourse premised on the assumption that there are four ethnic groups in Taiwan tends to view each group as internally homogenized. When it broaches the subject of indigenization, the mainlanders in Taiwan are considered as an ostracized group, ill-adapted to the process of indigenization. The thesis seeks to understand whether this is indeed the case with members of the Clan Association of the Zhuangs. Because they moved to Taiwan after World War II, they can be categorized as both mainlanders and Hakkas. Conducting its research on the basis of face-to-face and phone interviews, the thesis examines the process of their adaptation to the new environment. That process is considered in two contexts: how their culture and ways of living have come to acquire local characteristics and how they have responded to the politically motivated movement of indigenization (also called Taiwanization).
      The Clan Association of the Zhuangs consists partly of soldiers and government functionaries who followed the KMT regime to Taiwan when it retreated from the mainland in 1949. The majority, however, are those who immigrated in 1948 to seek work and better living conditions and to escape the social and economic disorder caused by the civil war taking place then in the mainland. Assisted by the clan members of the Zhuangs who had already established themselves in Taiwan, they settled in sooner than non-Hakka mainlanders. Since their arrival in Taiwan, they had regularly participated in the various gatherings of the clan, which eventually evolved into the formal organization called the Clan Association of the Zhuangs. The Association was founded in 1980, at the time when the consciousness of Taiwanese sovereignty started to emerge. Founding the Association can thus be seen as an attempt to resist Taiwanization and to build ties with China. For most of the members, however, the Association functions to remember the ancestors, to observe birth and funeral rites, and to strengthen emotional bonds between members. Lending psychological support to its members, it also enables them to identify themselves with Taiwan while consolidating their Hakka identity.
      When the movement of Taiwanization flourished in 1990’s, the Hakka identity they shared and the connections formed among them consequently facilitated their adaptation to the process of indigenization. In response to the question of their ethnic identity, they have no objection to being identified as Taiwanese Hakkas, because they have established a rapport with them. Not only do they see no threat to themselves in the policy of indigenization promoted by the government, but they have something to offer to the policy as well, namely, their food culture of pestled tea, which contributed to the formation of larger Hakka culture.

      目錄:請點選以下目次顯示內容

      第一章緒論1
      第一節研究動機與目的..................1
      第二節名詞界定......................4
      一、外省客家人....................4
      二、本土化......................7
      第三節文獻回顧........................10
      一、移民的土著化...................10
      二、政治上的台灣化..................13
      三、外省客家人面對本土化...............18
      第四節研究方法.....................23
      一、口述訪談.....................23
      二、電話訪談......................25
      三、文獻收集.....................26
      第五節研究架構與章節安排................26

      第二章莊氏宗族移居台灣的過程31
      第一節莊氏宗族在大陸的生活與移民原因..........31
      一、在大陸上的生活...................32
      二、移民因素......................36
      第二節莊氏宗族的移民網絡...................39
      一、自行移入的百姓....................41
      二、隨政府來台的軍公人員...............47
      三、輾轉由香港來台...................50
      第三節莊氏宗族在台灣的經濟生活.................53
      一、自行移入的百姓...................53
      二、隨政府來台的軍、公人員................62
      第四節莊氏宗族在台灣的生活適應.................64
      一、和本地人的相處...................64
      二、語言的適應....................66
      三、與本地人的通婚...................67
      小結........................69
      第三章莊氏宗親會的運作與功能71
      第一節莊氏宗親會形成前的運作.............71
      一、外省人來台形成的組織.................72
      二、莊氏宗族的來源..................74
      三、莊氏宗親會的前身—祖先壽誕會的成立........76
      第二節莊氏宗親會的形成.................81
      一、莊氏宗親會成立的過程與因素..............82
      二、參與的人員....................86
      三、宗親會、宗族或同鄉會?..............92
      第三節莊氏宗親會成立的意義...............96
      一、集體記憶與身份認同.................97
      二、族譜的編修....................101
      三、莊氏宗親會現今的功能...............106
      小結........................111
      第四章莊氏宗族的本土化114
      第一節、莊氏宗族的身份認同................115
      一、台灣四大族群的形成...................115
      二、莊氏宗族的族群認同..................120
      第二節、對本土化的適應..................132
      一、對鄉土教育的看法..................133
      二、強調自己的客家認同..................136
      第三節擂茶與台灣的客家文化.................137
      一、莊氏宗族傳統的陸豐擂茶..............138
      二、台灣的客家擂茶.....................143
      三、莊氏宗族對於台灣擂茶的適應............150
      小結........................153

      第五章結論與省思155
      第一節結論..........................155
      一、異於外省人的移民網絡,利於其土著化........156
      二、莊氏宗親會的形成,對本土化有助力亦有阻力......158
      三、在四大族群的框架上認同客家.............161
      四、在本土化潮流下,提供台灣客家文化所需的元素....163
      第二節省思..........................164

      參考文獻166