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研究成果: 北客南遷高雄地區的開發與義民爺信仰之研究=Kaohsiung area development by northern Hakka migration and the “Yimin Men” Religion

  • 作者:林秀昭(Shiu-Chao Lin)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:簡炯仁(Jiong- Ren Jian)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立臺南大學 
  • 系所名稱:臺灣文化研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2007
  • 畢業學年度:95
  • 頁數:192
    • 主題:信仰-神靈信仰
    • 關鍵詞:褒忠、北客南遷、旗尾、二次移民、義民爺、推力、拉力、Bau Chung、Yimin Men、Pull、Push、Northern Hakka Southern Migration
    • 國家:臺灣

      摘要:

      北客可分為初期拓荒移民以及二次移民兩部份,關於初期拓荒的一次移民,依開發時間先後,可約略分為幾個時期:即雍正初年的開拓:竹塹(新竹市)新豐、南崁、新屋、觀音等鄉鎮。乾隆初葉的開拓:頭份、通宵、桃園、八德、平鎮等鄉鎮。乾隆中末葉的開拓:公館、西湖、卓蘭、新埔、關西、湖口、竹東、大溪、中壢、楊梅等鄉鎮。咸豐同治年間的開拓:南庄、三灣、大湖、橫北及北埔、峨眉、寶山三鄉鎮的大隘地區。

      可見北部地區的開發順序,是從海線逐漸往山線漸進,所以濱海地區又擁有河港之利的南崁(南崁港)、新豐(紅毛港)、新竹(竹塹港)、頭份(中港)移民上岸,先在港口附近開墾拓荒,然後伸向台地平原地區,如桃園、八德、公館、新埔、湖口、竹東等地逐漸開發,最後才以武裝拓墾組織,進入原住民勢力範圍的南庄、大隘山區河谷平原拓墾。

      至於二次移民部份,係在「推力」與「拉力」的配合下,北部客家族群只好別離家園,紛紛南下或遠赴後山尋找另一個希望。因此日治時期二次遷徙南下高雄縣市的北客,如今在高雄縣甲仙、六龜、美濃南隆地區、鳳山、仁武一帶,以及高雄市三民區等地,都有大批北客族群的蹤跡。

      義民爺或稱義勇公、忠勇公、義民公,是一群在清代不同時期,為保鄉衛土而犧牲的平民百姓,受到當世或後人尊崇,而建亭、祠祭祀的陣亡義民。本研究有關義民的信仰淵源,主要是指清朝乾隆年間反清抗官的「林爽文事件」之由台灣中部蔓延至北部桃、竹、苗地區,該地區客籍人士為保衛鄉土,組織義民軍以資對抗之死難者的祭拜。乾隆53年(1788)全台林案亂事平定,由竹塹地方客籍人士建義塚收埋死難義民;同年清乾隆皇帝以「褒忠」二字頒匾褒揚,新竹地區士紳林先坤等人遂倡議建廟崇祀,而有褒忠亭義民廟的建立。由於義民爺的忠義精神而受到朝廷的冊封,遂成客家社區的信仰神明。

      二次移民後義民信仰的擴張,隨著二次移民的發展,義民信仰也遍佈全台,諸如高雄縣市的義民分香廟,就分布在高雄市三民區、高雄縣旗尾和甲仙等地。
      The Hakka immigration history can be divided into two periods: primary settlement and second migration. Regarding the first immigration of primary settlement, it can be roughly divided into several periods: the settlement in the beginning of the reign of Yuanchen (Hsinchu Hsinfon, Nankan, Hsinwu, and Guanyin township), the settlement in the beginning of the reign of Chienlong (Toufen, Tonghsiao, Taoyuan, Bate, and Pingchen township), the settlement in the middle and end of the reign of Chienlong (Kongguan, Hsihu, Chuolan, Hsinpu, Guanxi, Huko, Chudong, Daxi, Chonli, and Yangmei township), the settlement in the reigns of Xienfon and Tongi (Nanchuang, Sanwan, Dahu, Henbei township and mountain passage of Beipu, Omei and Baoshan township).
      It is observed that the process of the development in the northern area is from the sea shore to the mountain area. The immigrants first arrived at the port cities along the sea shore, such as Nankan (Nankan port), Hsinfon (Honmao port), Hsinchu (Chuchien port) and Tofen (Chungang) and then moved to plain or plateau areas, such as Taoyuan, Bate, Kongguan, Hsinpu, Huko and Chudong. Lastly, with armed forces, the Hakka immigrant settlement moved into the aboriginal regions such as Nanchuang, mountain passage and valley areas.
      As for the second migration, because of the “push” and “pull”, the northern Hakkas were forced to leave their villages and go down south or through the mountain to the east coast. During the Japanese sovereignty period, there was the second migration of the northern Hakkas to the south, around Kaohsiung city and county area. Nowadays, a large population of northern Hakkas can be found in Kaohsiung county Giahsien, Liuguei, Meinon Nanlong area, Fonshan, Renwu and in Kaoshiung city Sanmin area.
      “Yimin Men” also know as “Yi Yuan Gon”, “Chong Yuan Gon” or “Yi Min Gon” is a group of countryfolks who fought and died for protecting their villages and defending the people there during the Qin dynasty. Temples were built and ceremonies were carried out in order to honor these people who sacrificed their lives. The origins of the “Yimin Men” religion in this research refer to the ceremonies carried out for the deceased who formed “Yimin” troops and fought for their villages. These Hakka people from Taoyuan, Hsinchu, and Miaoli area were influenced by the “Lin Shuan-wen’s” revolt against the Qin dynasty from central Taiwan. In the reign of Chienlong, Year 53 (1788), the rebellion against Qin dynasty was settled in Taiwan, Hakkas in Chuchien area built tombs for the deceased anti-Qin resisters. In that same year, Qin Emperor Chienlong bestowed upon them the two words of “Bao Chung”. One local official named “Lin Sien Kuen” and others proposed to have temples for holding ceremonies and thus we have the establishment of the “Bao Chung Yimin Temple”. The “Chun Yi” spirits of the “Yimin Men” were honored by the imperial court, therefore, it became the religion of the Hakka community.
      The development of the “Yimin” religion after the second migration followed the progression of the second migration and spread all over Taiwan, such as the Yimin Fen Hsian Temples in Kaohsiung city and county, located in Sanming area in Kaohsiung city and Chiwei and Giahsien area in Kaohsiung county.

      目錄:請點選以下目次顯示內容

      第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………1
      第一節 研究動機與目的………………………………………………………1
      第二節 文獻回顧……………………………………………………………3
      第三節 研究方法與研究架構 ………………………………………………11
      第四節 研究範圍與限制 ……………………………………………………14
      第二章 人口推拉理論、「在地化」現象與義民爺信仰 ………18
      第一節 人口推拉理論……………………………………………………18
      第二節 「在地化」現象 ……………………………………………………24
      第三節 義民爺信仰 ……………………………………………………… 25
      第三章 北客在高雄市的開發與義民爺信仰 …………………… 40
      第一節 高雄市之拓墾……………………………………………………… 40
      第二節 北客遷徙高雄市 ……………………………………………………41
      第三節 北客遷徙高雄市之人口概況與聚落分布 …………………………56
      第四節 北客在高雄市之同鄉組織與義民爺信仰 …………………………67
      第五節 高雄市北客族群之發展概況 ………………………………………73
      第四章北客在甲仙埔、六龜里的開發與義民信仰………………80
      第一節 甲仙埔、六龜里之拓墾…………………………………………… 80
      第二節 北客遷徙甲仙埔、六龜里………………………………………… 84
      第三節 北客遷徙甲仙埔、六龜里之人口概況分析…………………104
      第四節 甲仙埔、六龜里之北客與義民爺信仰………………………112
      第五節 甲仙埔、六龜里北客族群之發展概況……………………………117
      第五章 北客在南隆地區的開發與義民爺信仰…………………124
      第一節 南隆地區之概況分析..........................................................................124
      第二節 三五公司南隆農場的成立與開發…………………………………134
      第三節 北客遷徙南隆地區…………………………………………………146
      第四節 北客遷徙南隆地區之人口概況與聚落分布 ……………………151
      第五節 北客在旗美地區的民間信仰與義民爺信仰 ……………………157
      第六節 南隆地區北客之發展概況…...………………………………172
      第六章 結論 ………………………………………………………176
      參考文獻 ………………………………………………………… 180
      附 錄 1 新竹縣義民廟簡史 …………………………………………………187
      附 錄 2 明治參拾捌年重建義民廟碑記 ……………………………………188
      附 錄 3 高雄市新桃苗同鄉會成立沿革 ……………………………………189
      附 錄 4 高雄市新竹同鄉會籌備委員會函 ………………………………… 189
      附 錄 5 高雄市褒忠義民廟沿革 ……………………………………………190
      附 錄 6 甲仙褒忠義民亭簡史………………………………………………190
      附 錄 7 財團法人旗美褒忠義民廟簡史 …………………………………… 191
      附 錄 8 2006年旗美褒忠義民廟聯合義民節祭典委員會之邀請卡………192