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研究成果: 日治時期南臺灣的山區開發與人口結構:以甲仙六龜為例=The Development of Mountain Areas and Population Structure in Southern Taiwan during the Japanese Occupation: A Case Study of Chia-Hsien and Liou-Guei Towns

  • 作者:王和安(Ho-An Wang)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:康豹(Paul R. Katz)(賴澤涵)(Jeh-Hang Lai)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立中央大學 
  • 系所名稱:歷史研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2007
  • 畢業學年度:95
  • 頁數:195
    • 主題:聚落-日治時期移民
    • 關鍵詞:殖民治理性、樟腦業、客家移民、新竹州、六龜、甲仙、地方菁英、local elites、Hakka migrants、Hsinchu Prefecture、Liou-Guei、Chia-Hsien、camphor industry、colonial governmentality
    • 國家:臺灣
    • 城市:新竹縣

      摘要:

      本文以日治時期甲仙、六龜地區之客家移民與樟腦業的開發為主軸,借用「殖民治理性」(colonial governmentality)、「地方菁英」(local elites)等兩種概念,來分析日本殖民當局的殖民政策,從有關臺灣山區的開發政策包括「移民」、「衛生」、「理蕃」、「樟腦」等要項著手,討論1895年之後,從新竹州(今桃竹苗地區)的客家移民進入甲仙、六龜地區的過程、移民規模及其與當地樟腦業發展之間的關係。甲仙、六龜地區的客家人相較其他高雄地區客家人的特殊性在於:日本政府因經濟上的需要,而有計畫性的將新竹州的客家人移入於此地區。殖民當局重視樟腦業、移民擁有開採樟腦的專業及資本、甲仙、六龜地區含有豐富的樟腦產量,三者之間相互連結的主要關鍵,即為「樟腦業」。
      甲仙、六龜地處山區,殖民當局為有效開發此區的樟腦業,必須克服兩大問題,便是「生番」與「衛生」。如何有效開發山地資源的關鍵工作,便在於與原住民的種種關係如何互動,以順利且有效取得所需的資源--「樟腦」;另外,日本移民渡台之初,水土不服,以致疾病叢生,正值壯年的勞動人口死亡率偏高,為改善台灣的衛生環境、增強內地人、本島人的免疫能力,以確保生產勞動力的充足,為總督府所要解決的重要工作。臺灣總督府在進行山區開發工作,在「移民」、「衛生」、「理蕃」、「樟腦」的推行上,充分表現出日本政府的殖民治理性。即殖民政權為有效取得樟腦資源,有計劃引入大量的勞動力(移民),並確保勞動力不至於因衛生環境的不佳而造成無謂的損失(衛生),以國家力量介入管理此區的衛生環境,加以改善,以便能夠有效的開發樟腦資源。
      有關新竹州的移民,在開發樟腦業的過程中,必須探討一個非常重要的問題就是:「透過政府政策到此區開發樟腦的移民有多少?而並非藉由政府政策,以私人名義移民來到此區開發樟腦的人又有多少?」若能解決此項問題,便可針對移民的原因作更進一步的分析。
      移民與其後裔在樟腦業開發之後,逐漸成為地方社會的領導人物,二次戰後,甲仙鄉的歷任鄉長多為移民或其後裔擔任,客家人成為甲仙鄉的政治主力。另外,移民對於地方社會的文化,亦有深刻性的影響。移民當時所帶來的「義民爺令旗」之義民爺信仰,在戰後逐漸發展建廟為「甲仙義民褒忠亭」,成為地方公廟之一。而當時為解決腦丁食用蔬菜問題所帶來的「芋頭」,在戰後推廣種植,成為現今甲仙推動觀光文化的指標,即「甲仙芋頭節」。
      This article is based on a discussion of Hakka migration and the development of the camphor industry in Chia-Hsien and Liou-Guei Towns. The concepts of colonial governmentality and local elites are used to analyze the colonial policies of Japanese colonial authorities. Colonial policies for developing the mountain areas of Southern Taiwan included migration control, improvements in sanitation, managing the “Raw” aborigines, and developing the camphor industry. Moreover, this article will discuss Hakka migration from Hsinchu Prefecture (current Taoyuan, Hsinchu, and Miaoli counties) to Chia-Hsien and Liou-Guei Towns after 1895. Furthermore, the links between the migrants and camphor industry will be discussed in detail. The difference between the Hakka people of Chia-Hsien and Liou-Guei and of Kaohsiung was that the former were “instructed” to move from Hsinchu Prefecture to the towns by the Japanese colonial authorities, in order to meet economic needs and demands. In the past, the Japanese paid much attention to the development of camphor, while, at the same time, the Hakka people had professional knowledge and skills in camphor extraction, and Chia-Hsien and Liou-Guei Towns provided abundant and natural camphor resources. Therefore, these three related conditions established the foundation for the local camphor industry.

      Because Chia-Hsien and Liou-Guei Towns are located in mountain areas, in order to have effective development in camphor industry, the Japanese colonial authorities had to overcome and improve two big problems, attacks by the “Raw” aborigines and poor hygienic conditions. In order to obtain the needed resource of camphor, to manage the relationship with aborigines was crucial for the Japanese. Moreover, during the early days when Japanese came to Taiwan, many young people died of infectious diseases. As a result, in order to maintain sufficient labor force, one primary task was to improve the hygienic conditions, thus strengthening people’s (Japanese and Taiwanese) immune systems. During this period, the Taiwan Governor-General Office implemented the idea of colonial governmentality to migration control, improvements in sanitation, and management of “Raw” aborigines, thereby successfully developing the local camphor industry. Finally, for obtaining resources effectively, the colonial authorities made plans to introduce a new labor force (Hakka migrants) in large numbers, and they had to ensure that there was no loss in manpower due to the bad hygienic conditions. Due to the effective use of state power to manage conditions and improve the hygienic environment, the Japanese colonial authorities achieved success in the camphor industry.

      Regarding numbers migrants from Hsinchu Prefecture during the process of camphor industry development, there is one big issue to be discussed, “How many migrants moved to Chia-Hsien and Liou-Guei to participate in the work of the camphor industry due to the actions of the Japanese colonial authorities? How many migrants moved to this area without authorization and voluntarily?” The reasons for these immigration phenomena could be analyzed in much more details if the above two questions could be answered.

      After the successful development in camphor industry, the migrants and their descendants became leading figures in the society. Especially after World War II, these newcomers became local township heads, and the Hakka people took over the political power in the town. In addition, the Hakka immigrants also made a great impact upon local cultures. One instance is the introduction of Flag of Heroes, which brought in the belief in the Heroes cult. After the war, temple of “Chia-Hsien’s Heroes Pavilion for Rewarding Loyalty” was built, and it also became a popular local sacred site. Besides that, the essential food supply for camphor workers during the period, “taro”, was planted pervasively after WWII. This particular vegetable also turned out to be a key symbol for the current tourism and culture industries in Chia-Hsien Town, with a large “Chia-Hsien Taro Festival” being held annually nowadays.

      目錄:請點選以下目次顯示內容

      緒論 1
      第一章 山區開發政策與經營 23
      第一節 山區開發政策與事業的經營 23
      第二節 衛生與移民 31
      第三節 理番與樟腦 38
      第二章 甲仙與六龜的區域發展史 47
      第一節 自然與人文環境 47
      第二節 清代的發展 58
      第三節 日治時期的發展 73
      第三章 移民與樟腦業的開發 83
      第一節 甲仙六龜山區開發事業的經營 83
      第二節 新竹州移民與樟腦事業的經營 112
      第三節 新竹州移民的人口結構 127
      第四章 移民與地方社會的發展 137
      第一節 樟腦業的開發對於地方社會的影響 137
      第二節 移民與地方社會的互動 154
      結論 171
      參考書目 173
      附錄 181