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博碩士論文: 高雄縣美濃鎮客家民歌傳承現況之研究=The Research of the Heritage of Hakka folksong in Meinong Town of Kaohsiung County

  • 作者:李鴻鈞(研究生)
  • 其他作者:鄭德淵(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立臺南藝術大學 
  • 系所名稱:民族音樂學研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2009
  • 畢業學年度:97
  • 頁數:128
      • 關鍵詞:客家民歌、傳承、美濃鎮、族群意識、Hakka folksongs、heritage、Meinung、ethnic self-consciousness
      • 國家:臺灣
      • 城市:高雄縣
      • 地點:美濃鎮

      摘要:

      隨著時代的變遷,早期先民以歌、樂、舞為主的休閒娛樂,早已被電視、電影等電子媒介取代。客家人,做為一個遷徙與流浪的族群,在文化傳承上,總有著不斷變異卻又相對穩定的系統,但也免不了受到電子媒體的影響,無論在音樂、風俗、語言、服飾等方面都有式微的趨勢。

      早先客家的民歌,不論山歌或小調,都附有傳播道德、知識、風俗習慣、語言等功能,其演唱的場合與形式,也具有凝聚族群共識與寓教於樂的意義。如今,因為傳媒的強力介入,這些民歌的傳承工作已日漸式微。因此,一群具有族群意識的族內人,為了本族群文化傳播與延續,已進行種種的努力。他們透過公資源的整合,定期舉辦山歌班、山歌比賽、電視媒體的傳播(客家電視台的成立);私人自發性的傳授學生與自娛性的演唱等方式,傳播著自己族群的歌,這樣的情況在台灣南北各地區的客家族群中都可以看到。

      筆者身為客家子弟,有興趣研究目前客家文化傳播的課題,本文預期分為五章,第一章為緒論,闡明研究動機與方法,並詳述本文研究的主要目的和所希望達成的研究成果;第二章台灣客家民歌的定義、分類與分布之研究,將針對台灣客家山歌、小調、演唱形式與內容對應的場域、台灣北部與南部客家民歌的差異等面相進行耙梳與整理,讓本文研究的主題有顯明的立論基礎;第三章將對美濃鎮的地理位置、人口分布、經濟條件、地方風俗、休閒活動等面相進行整理,分析民歌與上述資料之間歷史與傳承之間的關聯性;第四章就當前美濃地區公資源介入有關客家民歌傳播的管道與方式進行耙梳,並從學術研究、當地民俗活動、族群自我意識的傳承,還有民眾自娛性的演唱等方面進行整理與分析,研究這些活動對客家民歌傳承的現有狀況。

      第五章結論部分,筆者將利用前幾章研究的資料,進行綜合整理與分析,並歸納出幾個當前客家民歌在美濃傳承時,可預見的效果與困境。筆者希望透過這樣的分析,可以讓客家民歌在美濃,甚至美濃以外地區在傳承的方式、傳承的形態、資源的分配、傳承的理念等方面,有可以依據的資料與借鑑的方式,期待能對客家文化的傳承盡一點貢獻。
      Following the change of time, leisure entertainment for our ancestors in the early period including mainly singing, music and dancing had already been substituted by electronic media such as television and movie. In respect of cultural heritage and being a migrated and drifting ethnic group, the Hakka people has a continuous changing but correspondingly stable system. Yet it still cannot be exempted from the influence of electronic media and there is a declining trend no matter whether it is in music, customs, language and costume and accessories etc.

      For Hakka folksongs in the past, no matter whether these were mountain and village songs or ditties, there were functions of disseminating morality, knowledge, customs and habits and language etc. The occasion and form of such performance also had the meaning of cohering the common consensus of the ethnic group and providing teaching during entertainment. Nowadays, the heritage of these folk songs is declining day by day. Therefore, a group of people in this ethnic group with ethnic consciousness had already spent various efforts on the dissemination and continuation of this ethnic culture. Though integration of public resource, they already conducted mountain and village song class, mountain and village song contest and television and media communication (such as establishment of Hakka Television Station. In addition, private and spontaneous lessons were provided to students as well as self entertaining performance etc. to disseminate the songs of their own ethnic group. This kind of condition could be seen in Hakka ethnic group in various districts in both southern and northern Taiwan.The writer is a Hakka and is interested in the topic of dissemination of Hakka culture at present. This essay is expected to be divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 is preface that explains the research motive and method and describes the main purpose of this research in detail and the expected research achievements. Chapter 2 will provide categorization on Taiwan Hakka folksongs and research on its distribution. Aiming at the Taiwan Hakka mountain and village folksongs, ditties, performance form and corresponding contents and the difference between northern and southern Hakka folksongs in Taiwan, this research will chart out and arrange so that the topic of this research can have a clear argumentation foundation. Chapter 3 will carry out arrangement on the geographical position, population distribution, economic condition, locality customs and leisure activity of Meinung Town to analyze the correlation between folksongs and the history and heritage based on the above information. Chapter 4 will chart out the intervention by the public resource of Meiuung district at present in regard to the channel and method of dissemination of folk songs. In addition, arrangement and analysis are conducted on the aspect of academic research, local folk custom activity and heritage of ethnic self-consciousness to carry out research on the present condition of the heritage of Hakka folksongs by these activities.

      Chapter 5 is the conclusion and the writer will conduct comprehensive arrangement and analysis on the information of the research in the previous few chapters and will summarize a few expected results and difficulties during the heritage of Hakka folksongs in Meinung. Through this kind of analysis, the writer hopes that for Hakka folksongs in Meinung or even district beyond Meinung, people can base on this information and reference to understand the method of heritage, the form of heritage, allocation of resource and the philosophy of heritage and the writer expects to provide some contribution to the heritage of Hakka culture.

      目錄:

      第一章 緒論--------------------------------------1
      第一節 研究動機與目的-----------------------------1
      第二節 文獻回顧與探討-----------------------------3
      第三節 研究範圍與內容-----------------------------8
      第四節 研究理論與方法----------------------------11
      第五節 研究限制---------------------------------14

      第二章 台灣客家民歌定義、分類與分布之研究----------17
      第一節 客家民歌的定義----------------------------17
      第二節 台灣客家山歌、小調定義與分類----------------22
      第三節 客家山歌、小調地域分布之研究----------------38
      第四節 台灣北部與南部客家民歌差異之研究------------47

      第三章 美濃地理、人口、經濟與客家民歌傳承關係之研究--56
      第一節 美濃地理條件在台灣客家民歌發展的地位---------56
      第二節 美濃人口分布、休閒活動與客家民歌的關係-------62
      第三節 美濃經濟條件與民歌發展的關係----------------68

      第四章 美濃客家民歌傳承之現況分析-----------------75
      第一節 公資源的分配與客家民歌傳承的關係------------76
      第二節 學術研究對客家民歌傳承的影響----------------97
      第三節 族群意識對客家民歌傳承的影響---------------103

      第五章 結論------------------------------------115
      參考書目--------------------------------------124
      附錄 高雄縣客家文化中心近五年舉辦客家音樂之資料表--114