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研究成果: 都會區客語生活學校之個案研究=A case study of hakka-immersion school in a metropolitan area

  • 作者:張又千(研究生)、CHANG YU CHIEN(研究生)
  • 其他作者:何石松 博士(指導教授)、葉興華 博士(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:臺北市立師範學院
  • 系所名稱:課程與教學研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2005
  • 畢業學年度:93
  • 頁數:239
    • 主題:語言-其他
    • 關鍵詞:客語生活學校、客語教學、鄉土語言教學、都會區學校、hakka-immersion school、hakka teaching and learning、homeland language teaching and learning、school in a metropolitan area
    • 國家:臺灣

      摘要:

      本論文旨在以個案研究的方法,探討都會區客語生活學校推動的情形。研究內涵包括該校推動客語生活學校的緣起、推動客語的組織規劃與運作、客語推動的教學實施、影響客語生活學校實施的因素、實施的困境與因應以及該校實施客語生活學校的成效。在研究過程中,研究者透過觀察、訪談以及文件分析等方式,進行資料的蒐集與分析,所獲得之研究結果如下:一、動機與理念方面:實施動機起使於都會區客語流失嚴重所激發的文化傳承使命感,並著重培養多元文化觀的學生以及營造生活化的學習環境。二、組織規劃方面:充分運用都會區的社區資源為推動客語生活學校的一大助力,並能善用都會區人才濟濟的特色遴聘多元的師資,但校內客語教學的師資仍顯不足。三、課程內容方面:能依學生的起點行為提供適性的課程以及結合學校特色課程以符合都會區大型學校各類學生的需求,並因應都會區學習資源多元,以推展多元活動著重生活應用性來豐富學生經驗與提昇其學習意願,且能尊重多元的文化以作全面性的推展活動。四、教學實施方面:教學與學習的多樣性以及評量方式的多元化能提升都會區學生的學習興趣並減輕其學習負擔。五、實施的影響因素方面:經費的補助、行政人員的積極領導、客語教學群的推動意願,和都會區豐富的學習環境與社區資源的支援有利於客語生活學校的實施。但相對的,除經費未能延續規劃之外,都會區中難以取得全體教師的支持以及家長對於學童學習母語的情形關注不足則有礙於客語生活學校的實施。六、實施的困境與因應策略方面:實施的困境包含經費、人力、教師教學、都會區學習環境、家長支持度以及校內支持度等多方面的困境,而該校在面對推動實施上的困境皆能給予因應的策略。七、實施的成效方面:客語生活學校的實施得以增進組織成員對都會區學校的向心力,且客籍和非客籍的學生在認知、情意與技能等方面的學習都有長足的進步,唯學校系統化的自我評鑑機制仍待建立。最後,根據研究結論提出建議,以提供客語生活學校推行以及未來研究之參考。一、對推動客語生活學校人員的建議(一)提升人員的文化傳承使命感,以增加推動客語的意願。(二)統籌相關資源以增進客語生活學校的推動。(三)鼓勵教師發展教材以提供學生適性的課程。(四)鼓勵學校發展各校的客語生活學校特色,以保存該地區特有的客家文化特色或是發展創新的客家文化。(五)營造自然學習客語的環境以促進客語的生活應用性。(六)多元評鑑機制促進客語生活學校的推動。(七)鼓勵研擬中長期的計畫,以提昇客語生活學校推動的整體延續性。二、對實施客語生活學校者的建議(一)客語生活學校的推展應尊重多元的文化作全面性的推展。(二)課程與教學的成效應著重多元化以提升學生的學習興趣。(三)善用社區學習環境的優勢以提升客語生活學校的實施成效。(四)善用校內非正式組織的溝通以爭取對客語生活學校的支持。三、對未來研究的建議(一)研究的範圍:建議能擴及瞭解客語生活學校在區域間的差異上所產生之實施影響因素。(二)研究的層面:建議能研擬出克服於非客家庄地區在客語教學方面腔調不同的困境。
      Using a case study as the methodology of study, the researcher obtained the results by gathering and analysing the data attained from observation, interviews, and document analysis. This thesis investigates issues related to the promotion of hakka-immersion school in a metropolitan area. In particular, this study examines the beginning of the school's promotion of hakka-immersion(motive of the school to promote hakka), the organizational planning and the operation involved in promoting hakka, the teaching program created for the promotion of hakka, factors that influence the implementation of hakka-immersion school, obstacles faced and coping strategies used during the implementation and the effectiveness of the school's hakka-immersion. The researcher obtained the following results.1. Motivation and Beliefs: The motivation for implementing hakka-immersion schools originated from the fact that hakka is fast disappearing in a metropolitan area. This invigorates the obligation to preserve the culture as well as stresses the importance of cultivating multiculturalism among students. It also encourages the immersion of hakka in the learning environment. 2. Organizational Planning: A major contribution to the implementation of hakka-immersion school is the sufficient usage of community resources within the metropolitan area. This includes the taking advantage of the talented and diverse teaching staff from the metropolitan area. However, the number of hakka-teaching staff in the school is apparently not enough.3. Content of the teaching program: The classes should adapt a curriculum that will accommodate each student's background and experiences and to incorporate the school's unique teaching program to meet the different needs of the students. The curriculum should also incorporate the multi-resources from the metropolitan area in order to promote diverse activities that will place emphasis on applying hakka in student's daily activities which will in turn enrich the student's experience, and increase their learning motivation and enhance their respect for multiculturalism. 4. Implantation of the teaching program: The diversification of teaching, learning and evaluative methods can increase student's interest in learning and lessen learning burden at the same time.5. Factors that influence the implementation of hakka-immersion: Factors such as sufficient monetary funds, active leadership of the government officials, willingness of the teaching staff, the enriching quality of the learning environment in the metropolitan area and the support received from the community resource are all advantageous to the implementation of hakka-immersion. Conversely, except the fact that there has not been a continued effort at planning funding, the difficulty in obtaining all the teaching staff's support from schools in the metropolitan area and the lack of involvement and concern of parents in the learning of mother-tongue of their children impede the implantation of hakka-immersion.6. Obstacles in the implementation of hakka-immersion and corresponding coping strategies: Obstacles in implementation include lack of funds, human resources, teaching staff, the quality of learning environment in the metropolitan area, amount of support from the family as well as the schools. However, the school investigated in this study was able to adopt different coping strategies for each of these obstacles. 7. Effectiveness of implementation of hakka-immersion: The implementation of hakka-immersion in the school can enhance the motivation to accomplish the same goal for the cosmopolitan school among members of the organization. In addition, hakka-speaking and non-hakka speaking students all show more improvement in cognition, emotionality and skills learning. The only component that has yet to be established is the systematic self-evaluation within each school. Lastly, the study will provide possible suggestions based on the study's results for the promotion of hakka-immersion schools and future studies.1. Suggestions for school personnel who are promoting the hakka-immersion schools:a. Strengthen personnel's sense obligation for cultural heritage in order to enhance their willingness to promote hakka.b. Gather relevant resources to aid the promotion of hakka-immersion schools.c. Encourage teachers to develop teaching materials that are suitable for student's curriculum.d. Encourage each school to develop a unique theme for their hakka-immersion school in order to preserve the uniqueness of hakka culture from that area of school or to create a new hakka-culture altogether. e. Cultivate natural hakka-learning environment to increase the daily usage of hakka language.f. Adopt multi-evaluation methods within the school to promote the establishment of hakka-immersion schools.g. Encourage the personell to make long-term plans to ensure the continuity of the promotion of hakka-immersion schools. 2. Suggestions for people who are directly involved in the implementation of hakka-immersion schools:a. In promoting hakka-immersion schools, multiculturalism should be respected and promoted wholly.b. The effectiveness of curriculum and teaching should focus on increasing student's interests in leaning. c. Well use of advantages in the community's learning environment to increase the effectiveness of establishing hakka-immersion schools. d. Well use of communications with informal organization within the schools to gain their support for hakka-immersion schools.3. Suggestions for future studies:a. Parameter of the study: the author suggests that future studies will expand and understand the differences in factors that influence the implementation of hakka-immersion schools in different cultural area. b. Aim of the study: the author suggests that future studies propose solutions that will overcome the problem of different hakka-accents being taught in non-hakka speaking villages.

      目錄:請點選以下目次顯示內容

      目 次
      第一章 緒論----------------------------------------------------------1
      第一節 研究背景與動機-----------------------------------------------1
      第二節 研究目的與問題-----------------------------------------------4
      第三節 名詞釋義--------------------------------------------------- 6
      第四節 研究範圍與限制-----------------------------------------------8
      第二章 文獻探討------------------------------------------------------9
      第一節 母語教學立論基礎---------------------------------------------9
      第二節 語言教育政策------------------------------------------------17
      第三節 都會區客家語言的使用情形------------------------------------ 41
      第四節 語言教學理論------------------------------------------------54
      第三章 研究方法與歷程------------------------------------------------69
      第一節 研究方法----------------------------------------------------69
      第二節 研究對象的選取-----------------------------------------------71
      第三節 研究架構與流程-----------------------------------------------75
      第四節 資料蒐集與分析-----------------------------------------------79
      第四章 山水國小客語生活學校的實施經驗----------------------------------85
      第一節 實施緣起與組織規劃--------------------------------------------85
      第二節 山水國小客語推動的組織運作------------------------------------103
      第三節 山水國小客語推動的教學實施------------------------------------117
      第四節 山水國小實施客語生活學校的問題------------------------------- 149
      第五節 山水國小實施客語生活學校的成效------------------------------- 172
      第五章 結論與建議---------------------------------------------------183
      第一節 結論------------------------------------------------------ 183
      第二節 建議------------------------------------------------------ 190

      參考書目-----------------------------------------------------------195
      一、中文部分--------------------------------------------------------195
      二、英文部分--------------------------------------------------------200
      三、參考網站--------------------------------------------------------201

      附 錄
      一、客語生活學校實施試辦要點----------------------------------------- 202
      二、九十二年度辦理「客語生活學校」實施試辦申請學校一覽表-----------------205
      三、觀察時間、訪談時間以及文件資料一覽表-------------------------------207
      四、校長訪談大綱--------------------------------------------------- 212
      五、教務主任訪談大綱-------------------------------------------------213
      六、教學群訪談大綱---------------------------------------------------214
      七、家長訪談大綱--------------------------------------------------- 215
      八、學生訪談大綱--------------------------------------------------- 216
      九、山水國小自編教材-1---------------------------------------------- 217
      十、山水國小自編教材-2---------------------------------------------- 220
      十一、一年級鄉土語言選修調查表-------------------------------------- 227
      十二、二~六年級的鄉土語言選修調查表--------------------------------- 228
      十三、客語學習護照初級篇---------------------------------------------229
      十四、客語學習護照進階篇-1-------------------------------------------230
      十五、客語學習護照進階篇-2-------------------------------------------232
      十六、期末總結性評量-------------------------------------------------234

      表 次
      表2-1-1 台灣光復後的語言政策及教育方針--------------------------------19
      表2-2-2 台灣解嚴後的語言教育政策表----------------------------------- 22
      表2-2-3 國小課程標準新修訂後的語言教育政策表-------------------------- 24
      表2-2-4 九年一貫課程公佈後的語言教育政策表---------------------------- 27
      表2-2-5 多語國家之語言政策表-----------------------------------------34
      表2-3-1 各種客家人定義與台北都會區推估人數比較表 ---------------------- 42
      表2-4-1 語言教學法概述表-------------------------------------------- 58
      表2-4-2 鄉土語言之教學情境文獻整合表--------------------------------- 63
      表3-2-1 研究對象之基本資料表---------------------------------------- 73
      表3-4-1 研究焦點與資料來源對照表------------------------------------- 80
      表3-4-2 各類資料編碼方式表------------------------------------------ 82
      表3-4-3 轉錄符號說明表----------------------------------------------83
      表4-2-1 山水國小九十三學年度客家語課程規劃表--------------------------104
      表4-2-2 每週一句內容-----------------------------------------------107
      表4-2-3 客語廣播播放主題--------------------------------------------108
      表4-2-4 客語視訊播放節目內容----------------------------------------108
      表4-2-5 92年度文化尋根參訪之旅--------------------------------------114
      表4-2-6 93年度文化參訪與校際交流活動---------------------------------114
      表4-3-1 每週一句客家師傅話------------------------------------------132
      表4-5-1 山水國小客語生活學校活動規劃與實施之對照表---------------------173
      表4-5-2 山水國小協辦之研習活動表-------------------------------------176


      圖 次
      圖2-3-1 客家人的身分----------------------------------------------- 44
      圖3-3-1 研究架構圖------------------------------------------------- 75
      圖3-3-2 研究流程圖--------------------------------------------------77
      圖3-3-3 研究時程圖------------------------------------------------- 78
      圖4-1-1 客語推行委員會之架構及任務圖----------------------------------94
      圖4-1-2 課程領域架構圖----------------------------------------------94