現在位置 首頁>檢索服務>詳目式

全文網際網路開放

博碩士論文: 台灣苗栗與廣東興寧客家話比較研究=A Comparative Study of Taiwan Miaoli and Guangdong Xingning Hakka Dialects

  • 作者:邱仲森(研究生)、Chiu Chung Sen(研究生)
  • 其他作者:羅肇錦(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立新竹教育大學
  • 系所名稱:臺灣語言與語文教育研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2005
  • 畢業學年度:94
  • 頁數:199
    • 主題:語言-其他
    • 關鍵詞:苗栗話、方言、比較研究、客家話、興寧話、Miaoli Dialect、Dialects、Comparative Study、Hakka Dialect、Xingning Dialect
    • 國家:臺灣、廣東興寧
    • 城市:苗栗縣

    摘要:

    台灣苗栗與廣東興寧客家話比較研究摘要 在台灣,我們將興寧話以「四縣話」來概括它,然而四縣包括了興寧、五華平遠、蕉嶺,外加梅縣。以這種方式來看待興寧話,容易把興寧話就認為和苗栗話如出一轍,毫無差別。本文分別從語音、詞彙、語法三方面比較台灣苗栗與廣東興寧的異同。 本文主要調查了興寧從北到南五個方言點(包括台灣一個),就興寧內部而言,音韻上大致分為南北兩種類型,北部羅浮接近贛南,山攝、臻攝元音複化(at→ait、ut→uit、ot→oit)的情形也與贛南相差無幾。南部複化情形不如北部嚴重。音韻上,興寧在輔音韻尾的類型上接近江西(-n/t,-N/k),苗栗的輔音韻尾則保持完整。興寧有兩套滋絲音,苗栗合併為一套。從語音演變的邏輯過程中,我們推測苗栗也曾經有過捲舌聲母,今天卻消失。深攝在苗栗是開口三等,興寧走的卻是合口三等,可見深攝在客家話具有雙線發展。興寧在流攝上產生元音高化的現象,苗栗卻仍然不為所動。 詞彙上興寧、苗栗在親屬「母親、伯母、舅母」的稱呼相差甚遠。興寧常用「雞春」、「發狂」不用「發癲」,用「眼」多於用「目」。興寧的詞彙有趨於簡化並與北京話靠攏的趨勢,苗栗則較為保守,變化較小。兩者的差異有的是語音上的演變或者是送氣與否的差別。 語法上,代詞的種類上,苗栗較少,興寧有些發生聲母脫落或元音高化產生不同面貌的變體。 興寧在程度副詞的種類上相當多樣化,結合能力有強有弱。名詞後綴(suffix)「兒」的分布,在興寧讀北部多讀「呧」(ti31),南部多讀「哩」(li31)。石馬、水口卻以讀「子」(ts31)著稱,苗栗以「欸」(e31)為其特色。句法方面針對兩地的「比較句」、副詞「唔曾」(m11 thien11)所形成的疑問句與否定句加以比較。
    A Comparative Study of Taiwan Miaoli and Guangdong Xingning Hakka DialectsAbstract In Taiwan, “Szih Hsien Hakka Dialects” is used to stand for Xingning Dialecct. However, Szih Hsie, which means “four counties,” actually includes counties such as Xingning, Wuhua, Jiaoling, Pingyuan, and Meixian. It is very likely for people to consider Xingning Hakka Dialect to be similar to Miaoli Hakka Dialect. Thus, the intention of this paper is to compare Taiwan Miaoli Hakka Dialect with Guangdong Xingning Hakka Dialect in the aspects of phonology, lexeme and syntax. The researcher investigated the five dialect points of Xingning Hakka Dialect from the north to the south(inclunding one point in Taiwan). Xingning phonology is divided mainly into two categories: The North Luofu(羅浮) is close to the South of Gan; the Shan Rubric(山攝) and Chên Rubric(臻攝)(at→ait、ut→uit、ot→oit)are the same as that in southern Gan county. The South Xingning is close to Maoli Hakka Dialect. Xingning is more close to Jiangsi regarding the type of consonantal endings(-n/t,-N/k)in phonology. Miaoli remains complete in the type of consonantal endings. There are two sets of sibilants in Xingning, which are combined in Miaoli Hakka Dialect. From this, it is inferred that there was retroflex in Miaoli Hakka Dialect, which disappears now because of the logic process of sound changes. Even though Shên Rubric (深攝)belongs to non- labial Division Ⅲ of Miaoli Hakka Dialect, it nevertheless belongs to labial Division Ⅲ of Xingning Hakka Dialect. Therefore, there is a bipartite development of hakka dialects. There is vowel raising in Liu Rubric(流攝), which does not appear in Miaoli Hakka Dialect. Lexically speaking, the appellation used for mother and aunt is different in Xingning and Miaoli Hakka Dialects. We often use “kai11 t§áun24”(雞春)、 “fat1 káoN11” (發狂)instead of “fat1 tien24”(發癲), and the “Nan31(眼)” is used more often than “ muk1(目).” Lexically speaking, Xingning Hakka Dialect becomes simplified and is close to Mandarin, whereas Miaoli Hakka Dialect is more conservative and has fewer changes. The difference of these two dialects can be attributed to sound changes; otherwise, these two dialects differ in their aspirated or unaspirated sounds. Regarding the type of pronouns, there are few variants in Miaoli Hakka Dialect. The initial dropping or vowel raising of Xingning Hakka Dialect results in different variants in syntax. The type of adverbs of degree in Xingning Hakka Dialect is various. It shows strong and weak combinations. Take the distribution of “兒” in Xingning Hakka Dialect as an example. In the north, it is often pronounced as “ti31”; in the south it is pronounced as “li31”. The residents of Shima (石馬) and Shuikou (水口)tend to pronounce “ts31”. Miaoli Hakka Dialect is well-known for its “e31.”In syntax, “comparative sentences,” “interrogative sentences,” and “negative sentences” formed by “m'11 táien11”( 唔曾)are discussed.key words: Miaoli Dialect, Xingning Dialect, Hakka Dialect, Comparative Study, Dialects

    目錄:

    頁次
    第一章 緒論
    第一節 研究動機 1
    第二節 研究方法 2
    第三節 文獻探討 4
    第四節 興寧市與苗栗縣概況 9
    第二章 語音特點
    第一節 苗栗音系 15
    第二節 興寧音系 19
    第三節 語音特點 23
    第四節 文白異讀 26
    第五節 連讀變調 29
    第三章 比較音韻
    第一節 聲母比較 30
    第二節 韻母比較 41
    第三節 聲調比較 113
    第四章 音韻現象考察
    第一節 聲母部份 118
    第二節 韻母部份 127
    第三節 聲調部份 142
    第五章 詞彙比較 145
    第六章 語法比較
    第一節 代詞比較 163
    第二節 詞綴比較 168
    第三節 程度副詞比較174
    第四節 句法特點比較178
    第七章 結論 183
    參考文獻 185
    附錄一 故事三則附錄二 189
    興寧話發音人簡介 199