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博碩士論文: 從語言學角度分析樹木名稱之客語詞彙---以新竹縣竹東地區為例

  • 作者:范靜玉(研究生)
  • 其他作者:范文芳(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立新竹教育大學
  • 系所名稱:臺灣語言與語文教育研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2004
  • 畢業學年度:93
  • 頁數:160
    • 主題:語言-海陸
    • 關鍵詞:語言學、語言底層、語言接觸、海陸客語、竹東地區、linguistics、language bottom、language contact、Hoi Liuk Hakka、Chu-Dong area
    • 城市:新竹縣

    摘要:

    摘 要由於生活型態改變,客語在現今社會中逐漸式微,包括樹木名稱也有漸漸消失的危機。而現行各版本鄉土語言教材中大多缺乏樹木名稱詞彙之教學。身為語言研究及教育工作者當有此語言流失的危機意識。 筆者系統地採集樹木名稱的海陸客語詞彙,並加以分析、探究,發現海陸客語樹木詞彙在音韻方面不論聲母、韻母、聲調皆符合海陸客語的規則;構詞方面除通名多為單音節語素外,整體詞彙多雙音節或三音節,且以偏正式合義詞最多。 此外,命名時包括以功能、顏色、構造型態、嗅覺、味覺、材質、聲音、動物、紋理、器官、譯名及借用人倫稱呼等方式。樹木客語詞彙在漢語中的地位或許因時空轉變而逐漸沒落,且與西方嚴謹的植物系統有部分衝突的地方,但在客家文學中卻佔有重要的地位。由地名中使用樹木命名現象普遍可看出樹木在客家人生活中的密切性。 客語樹木詞彙尚有許多研究的空間,尤其在青草藥的命名方面,有多樣的表現,可做為日後繼續研究的努力方向。希望透過這項研究,除了能保留樹木客語詞彙、充實客語教學的內容之外,更希望能將客語文化貢獻成為人類共享的智慧財產,達成人類共同學習的美好理想。 也希望能將本土的文化借助學術化的方法,透過清楚而嚴謹的架構讓它走向國際,扭轉一般人對本土文化的認知,提升本土文化的價值,如此一來,客家文化將達成學術化而不背離生活,生活化又不與學術脫節的目標,這將是本土化、學術化及國際化最理想的聯繫。
    AbstractWith the rapid change of lifestyle in modern society, Hakka dialect has been declining year by year. Even the Hakka vocabularies of tree denominations have been disappearing. Moreover, most Hakka teaching materials lack the introduction of trees. Linguistics researchers or teachers should be worrying about such a language loss.I therefore gathers vocabularies of tree names in Hoi Liuk Hakka dialect to conduct in-depth analyses. The conclusion reached is that, in terms of phonology, tree names in Hoi Liuk Hakka dialect follow the general rules of Hakka vocabularies in consonants, vowels, or tones. Regarding word-building, most common names are monosyllabic, while most other vocabularies have two or three syllables and are formal compound words.In addition, tree names were given in consideration of functions , colors, structure types, sense of smell, sense of taste, materials, sound, animal, lamination, organs, translated names, personalized denominations, etc. It is found that the importance of tree names of Hakka dialect in the Chinese language as a whole has been gradually declining probably due to social changes. These vocabularies of trees have even in conflict with the rigorous plant system of the west, but have occupies an important place in Hakka literature. The fact that many local places have been named after trees shows that trees are closely connected with Hakka people in their daily life.Researches concerning tree vocabularies in Hakka dialect still need more efforts. The names of herbal medicine, among others, are very versatile, indicating a new direction for such research in the future. It is hoped that, through this dissertation, the Hakka dialect tree vocabularies can be better kept to enrich the contents of Hakka dialect education, thus making Hakka dialect an integral part of intellectual property shared by all mankind. Meanwhile, I wish to internationalize this native culture by academic methods and through a rigorous framework to so that this native culture can be correctly understood and its value better enhanced. By doing so, Hakka culture can be both academic and down-to-earth. It will also make Hakka culture an ideal linkage of local, academic and international efforts.Key words: linguistics, Chu-Dong area, Hoi Liuk Hakka, language contact, language bottom

    目錄:

    目 錄
    第壹章 緒論

    第一節 研究動機 2
    第二節 文獻探討 3
    第三節 研究方法、範圍與研究目的 30

    第貳章 客語日常詞彙中的樹木名稱

    第一節 客語樹木名稱在植物學中的分類 33
    第二節 地名與樹木的關係 70
    第三節 青草藥及客家藥籤中的植物 76
    第四節 客家文學中植物的文學意象 78

    第參章 客語樹木名稱詞彙討論

    第一節 音韻的探討 87
    第二節 聲調的探討 94
    第三節 構詞的探討 98


    第肆章 客語樹木名稱詞彙命名特色分析

    第一節 音韻方面的特色 109
    第二節 構詞方面的特色 114
    第三節 幾種常見樹木名稱訛誤之探討 118

    第伍章 結論 125

    附錄一 引用文獻 128
    附錄二 樹木名稱海陸客語詞彙總表 132
    附錄三 文獻中的樹木詞彙整理表 146