現在位置 首頁>檢索服務>詳目式

全文網際網路開放

博碩士論文: 北埔地區客家人使用國語ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ之社會變異研究=Sociolinguistic Variation of Mandarin Alveolopalatal Initials j-, q-, x- in the Beipu Hakka Community, Taiwan

  • 作者:曾國盛(研究生)、Guo-Sheng Tzeng(研究生)
  • 其他作者:何德華(指導教授)、Der-Hwa V. Rau(指導教授)
  • 語文:英文
  • 出版者:靜宜大學
  • 系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:94
  • 畢業學年度:93
  • 頁數:99
      • 關鍵詞:國語發音、社會語言學、客家話、北埔、客家國語、語音變異、社會變異、Hakka、Phonological Variation、Mandarin Alveolopalatals、Beipu、Sociolinguistic Variation、Sociolinguistics、Hakka Mandarin

        摘要:

        本研究運用William Labov的社會語言學面談法(Sociolinguistic Interview)實地採集語料並進行語音變異的量化分析,以探討北埔鄉當地海陸客家居民使用國語舌面音ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ的社會變異研究。北埔鄉位於新竹縣現為著名的觀光景點。ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ的前移現象為客家國語語音上的一項特色,而ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ前移時會被ㄗ、ㄘ、ㄙ所取代,例如「機」發成「ㄗㄧ」。本研究將探討影響語音變異的因素包括內在的語音環境(韻母)及外在因素如說話者的性別、年齡、教育程度、風格以及語言態度。 受訪者為北埔鄉當地以海陸腔的客語為母語的居民。二十位受訪者逐一接受三十至四十分鐘的訪談並錄音。訪談的內容分為面談(個人背景、回答問題)、重述故事、朗誦短文及詞表。訪談結束後,受訪者填寫評量自身語言態度的問卷。語料經整理後並以GOLDVARB 2001 (Robinson, Lawrence & Tagligmonte, 2001)進行語音變異的量化分析。 研究結果顯示內在及外在因素影響ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ語音變異。內在的語音環境方面:一、當韻母以「ㄧ」為其介音或主要元音時,ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ發生前移並被ㄗ、ㄘ、ㄙ取代,同時前移所佔比例最高。二、當韻母以「ㄩ」為其介音或主要元音,出現前移現象時,圓唇音「ㄩ」會被非圓唇「ㄧ」所取代,ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ則保持不變。三、當ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ其後的韻母為「ㄩㄣ」時出現例外現象,介音「ㄩ」不會被非圓唇「ㄧ」所取代,相對的,ㄩㄣ發成一ㄨㄣ。外在的因素方面,一、女性比起男性使用較多的正確發音。二、年輕的受訪者使用的正確發音比年長者多。三、教育程度高者使用正確發音多,相對的,程度低者,產生前移現象多。四、受訪者在正式風格使用較多正確發音,在非正式風格上,前移相對較多。最後,語言態度的問卷結果發現,受訪者對於不同變體接受度與本身語言使用狀況有不一致的現象。本文將針對結果做進一步的探討及合理解釋。
        This study follows Labov’s sociolinguistic interview methods to investigate the sociolinguistic variation of Mandarin alveolopalatal initials j-, q-, and x- in a Hakka community, Beipu, a small township but now a famous scenic spot in Xinzhu. The fronting of j-, q-, and x- is one of the features of Hakka Mandarin by Hailu Hakka speakers and these sounds are fronted as the dentals z-, c-, and s-, respectively. In this study, both internal linguistic factors (the finals following the initials) and external linguistic factors (gender, age, education level, speech style, and language attitude) are investigated. The participants consist of 20 natives of Hailu Hakka speakers who live in Beipu since their childhood and were interviewed and recorded digitally for 30 to 40 minutes individually. Participants were asked to perform tasks in different speech styles including interview, story retelling, passage reading, and word reading and to answer the questionnaire to evaluate their own language attitude. The data were transcribed and entered into GOLDVARB 2001 (Robinson, Lawrence & Tagligmonte, 2001) for quantitative analysis. The results show that both internal linguistic and external social factors affect the fronting of alveolopalatals. The internal linguistic factors are the finals that occur after the initials and they have effects on the variation in three ways: (1) the fronted alveolopalatals occur most frequently when followed by the high front unrounded vowel -i, (2) the high front rounded vowel - is unrounded and replaced by -i when it follows the initials, and (3) the fronting does not occur when the initials are followed by the final -n. On the other hand, external linguistic factors are proved to have effects on the pronunciations. First, females use more accurate production of alveolopalatals than do males. Secondly, young speakers use more standard form of alveolopalatals than old speakers. Thirdly, speakers of higher education level have less fronting than those of lower education level. Next, the more formal the speech style is, the more accurate the speakers’ production of the initials. Finally, the results of questionnaire of language attitude reveal that inconsistency exists between participants’ language use and attitude toward different variants, for example, participants slightly disagree with replacing the alveolopalatals with the dentals but use fronted variants most frequently.

        目錄:

        Table of Contents………………………………………………………………… i
        Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………… iv
        English Abstract………………………………………………………………… v
        Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………… vii
        List of Tables…………………………………………………………………… viii
        List of Figures…………………………………………………………………… ix

        CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………… 1
        1.1 Background……………………………………………………………………… 1
        1.2 Hakka Mandarin………………………………………………………………… 2
        1.3 Historical Background………………………………………………………… 3
        1.3.1 Reclamation of Beipu (Qing Dynasty)………………………………… 3
        1.3.2 The Japanese Occupation (1895-1944)………………………………… 4
        1.3.3 From the Restoration (1945) to Present………………………………… 5
        1.4 Sociodemographic Profile……………………………………………… 5
        1.4.1 Geography……………………………………………………………… 5
        1.4.2 Population……………………………………………………………… 5
        1.4.3 Socioeconomic Features………………………………………………… 6
        1.4.4 Language Usage………………………………………………………… 8
        1.5 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………… 8
        1.6 Outline of the Study…………………………………………………… 9

        CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………… 10
        2.1 Expositions of Mandarin Chinese and Hailu Hakka in Taiwan………… 10
        2.1.1 Chinese Syllable Structure……………………………………………… 10
        2.1.2 Consonants……………………………………………………………… 11
        2.1.2.1 Consonants of Mandarin…………………………………………… 11
        2.1.2.2 Consonants of Hailu Hakka…………………………………………… 12
        2.1.3 Vowels and Finals……………………………………………………… 14
        2.1.3.1 Vowels and Finals of Mandarin………………………………………… 14
        2.1.3.2 Vowels and Finals of Hailu Hakka……………………………… 15
        2.2 History of Mandarin Chinese Alveolopalatals j-, q-, and x-……… 16
        2.3 The Phonological System of Mandarin Chinese Alveolopalatals……… 18
        2.3.1 The Characteristics of Mandarin Chinese Alveolopalatals……… 18
        2.3.2 The Co-occurrence of Mandarin Chinese Alveolopalatals and the Finals…19
        2.4 Theoretical Framework………………………………………………… 20
        2.4.1 Accommodation Theory………………………………………………… 20
        2.4.2 Dialects in Contact……………………………………………………… 20
        2.4.3 Social Variables in Sound Change……………………………………… 21
        2.5 Studies on Mandarin Alveolopalatals j-, q-, and x- in Taiwan…… 22
        2.6 Language Attitude……………………………………………………………… 23
        2.7 Summary………………………………………………………………… 23

        CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………… 25
        3.1 Pilot Study……………………………………………………………………… 25
        3.2 Research Questions……………………………………………………… 28
        3.3 Hypotheses……………………………………………………………………… 29
        3.4 Participants……………………………………………………………… 29
        3.5 Procedure……………………………………………………………………… 31
        3.6 Sociolinguistic Interview……………………………………………… 32
        3.7 Statistical Analysis: VARBRUL………………………………………… 33
        3.8 Coding…………………………………………………………………………… 33
        3.8.1 Coding Dependent Variable……………………………………………… 35
        3.8.2 Coding Independent Variable…………………………………………… 35
        3.8.3 When not to Code……………………………………………………………… 36
        3.8.4 The Reliability of the Coding……………………………………………… 36
        3.9 Summary…………………………………………………………………………………37

        CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS……………………………………………………………… 38
        4.1 An Initial VARBRUL Run……………………………………………………… 38
        4.2 Recoding………………………………………………………………………… 43
        4.3 Second and Subsequent VARBRUL Runs……………………………………… 44
        4.4 Interpreting the VARBRUL Weights…………………………………………… 45
        4.4.1 External Linguistic Factors……………………………………………… 46
        4.4.1.1 Effect of Gender………………………………………………………… 46
        4.4.1.2 Effect of Age……………………………………………………………… 47
        4.4.1.3 Effect of Education Level………………………………………… 47
        4.4.1.4 Effect of Speech Style…………………………………………… 48
        4.5 Internal Linguistic Factors (Phonological Environments)……………… 48
        4.5.1 Three Main Phonological Environments on the Variation……… 49
        4.5.2 Intersection of Internal Linguistic Factors with External Linguistic Factors……………………………………………………………………………… 52
        4.6 Language Attitude……………………………………………………………… 58
        4.6.1 Attitude of Language Behavior………………………………………… 58
        4.6.2 Attitude of the Variants………………………………………………… 60
        4.7 Summary………………………………………………………………………… 61

        CHPATER FIVE DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………… 62
        5.1 Internal Linguistic Factors……………………………………………… 62
        5.1.1 The High Front Unrounded Vowel -i /i/………………………………… 62
        5.1.2 The High Front Rounded Vowel -u /y/………………………………… 63
        5.1.3 The Final -un /yn/…………………………………………………………… 64
        5.2 External Linguistic Factors……………………………………………… 65
        5.2.1 Gender…………………………………………………………………………… 65
        5.2.2 Age……………………………………………………………………………… 66
        5.2.3 Education Level………………………………………………………………… 67
        5.2.4 Speech Style……………………………………………………………………… 68
        5.3 Language Attitude………………………………………………………………… 69
        5.4 Summary……………………………………………………………………………… 73

        CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………… 74
        6.1 Main Findings…………………………………………………………………… 74
        6.2 Limitation of the Study………………………………………………………… 75
        6.3 Suggestion for Further Study…………………………………………………… 76

        REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………… 77
        APPENDIX 1: Interview I: Getting Personal Information…………………… 82
        APPENDIX 1: Interview I: Getting Personal Information (in Chinese)……… 83
        APPENDIX 2: Story Retelling……………………………………………………… 84
        APPENDIX 3: Passage Reading……………………………………………………… 86
        APPENDIX 3: Passage Reading (in Chinese)……………………………………… 87
        APPENDIX 4: Word Reading (in Chinese)………………………………………… 88
        APPENDIX 5: Interview II: Questions……………………………………………… 89
        APPENDIX 5: Interview II: Questions (in Chinese)……………………………… 90
        APPENDIX 6: Attitude Questionnaire……………………………………………… 91
        APPENDIX 6: Attitude Questionnaire (in Chinese)………………………………… 93
        APPENDIX 7: Sample Transcription of Interview and Story Retelling (in Chinese) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 95