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博碩士論文: 東勢客家話情態詞研究─並以「愛」與「會」為例談語法化=A Study of Tungshih Hakka Modality: With particular reference to grammaticalization of Oi and Voi

  • 作者:劉英享(研究生)、Ying-Hsang Liu(研究生)
  • 其他作者:連金發(指導教授)、Chinfa Lien(指導教授)
  • 語文:英文
  • 出版者:國立清華大學
  • 系所名稱:語言學研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2000
  • 畢業學年度:88
  • 頁數:0
      • 關鍵詞:語法化、客家話、方言語法、時貌、動態、語意演變、情態動詞、情態、Grammaticalization、Hakka、dialectal syntax、Aspect、Mood、Semantic Change、Modal Verb、Modality

        摘要:

        先前有關情態、動態及時貌的研究主要是以跨語言的語料為主,試圖發現語意變化的一般趨勢(例如Bybee and Osten 1989; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994等)。這些研究顯示:情態作為一語意的範疇是由一組跨語言的「語法類型」(gram-types)所組成,可由其語意焦點辨別,並且在個別語言中體現成不同的語法素。在語言類型上不相關的語言中,我們觀察到同一詞彙來源的語法素其意義發展有相類似的歷史演變途徑。 本論文旨在探索東勢客家話情態語的發展。先前有關客家話的研究通常專注於音韻或歷史方面的討論,只有少數有關語法或語意的相關研究(例如:Hashimoto 1973; Lo (1988) [1984])。本文採語料庫取向的研究法,主要蒐集《徐老師講古》以及《東勢鎮客語故事集》一至五集為語料,輔以田野調查,研究東勢客家話的情態動詞。研究結果辨別出16個主要的情態動詞,並找出其語言形式和意義間的對應關係。此外,本研究進一步深究語料中出現頻率最高的二個情態動詞「愛」和「會」的語法和語意用法。從語法結構、論旨角色、主語施事性、情態意義、以及情態種類等面向切入,我們發現多義詞「愛」有表示「喜歡」、「意願」、「預測」、「未來」及「義務」等五種主要用法。另一情態動詞「會」則有表示「能力」、「根義可能性」以及「知識可能性」等三種主要用法。 進一步語意/語用分析顯示:「愛」的多義用法和Thomas (1995) 和Levinson (1995)所提出的不同意義層次有關,「愛」表示「義務」的用法則是屬於語句意義,必須和語境產生互動才能得到這層意思。運用Tregidgo (1982)分析英文must和may情態意義中「要求」的概念,我們將「愛」的五種主要用法以此觀念貫串。本文也呈現「愛」有關「意願」、「預測」及「未來」等用法,其語意具有連續體特質。另外,本研究也以語法化理論中「演變單向性假設」及詞彙來源決定意義演變的說法,提出東勢客家話「愛」和「會」的語意演變途徑。 有關表達「未來」意義的語法素發展的研究,本文發現在先前客語語法論著中(Hashimoto 1973; Lo (1988) [1984]),「愛」和「會」看似相同的表「未來」用法,事實上有不同的語意限制,而這項限制實導因於兩者不同的詞彙來源以及歷史演變的過程。情態和動態觀念均和時貌相關,三者之間複雜的關係藉由相關研究及本文實證的結果,獲得初步的釐清。然而,中文動態體系並不像印歐語一樣,是由動詞屈折變化系列表現。中文有關情態、動態及時貌的演變發展研究仍有待開發。本研究的結果提出以下後續研究的建議:包括漢語方言情態動詞的對比分析、否定詞和情態語的互動、詞彙語意殘留和現代語法詞的分布限制、以及語言特列結構和語法化之間的互動。
        Previous research on the development of modality, mood and aspect system has mainly drawn upon crosslinguistic data to reveal the general tendencies in semantic change (e.g. Bybee and Osten 1989; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994). These studies have shown that modality as a semantic domain is a small set of crosslinguistic gram-types identifiable by their semantic foci and manifested in language-specific grammatical morphemes. Similar paths of development of grammatical meaning from the same lexical source have also been observed in typologically unrelated languages. The present study aims to explore the grammaticalization process of modality, using the Tungshih Hakka dialect as a case study. Earlier research on Hakka dialect has focused on the phonological or historical aspects, with only a few studies (such as Hashimoto 1973; Lo (1988) [1984]) on the syntactic or semantic components of this language. Taking a corpus-based approach supplemented with informant tests, this investigation has identified sixteen modal verbs mapping out their complex form-meaning relationships. The syntactic and semantic-pragmatic behavior of the two most frequently occurring modal verbs oi and voi are then further examined in terms of their grammatical and thematic structures, subject agentivity, semantic foci and types of modality. Research results show that the polysemous usage of oi has five main types, meaning ''to like'', ''volition'', ''prediction'', ''future'', and ''obligation''. The other modal verb voi exhibits three main types, meaning ''ability'', ''root possibility'', and ''epistemic possibility''. Further semantic-pragmatic analysis reveals that the polysemous usage of oi involves different levels of meanings as proposed by Thomas (1995) and Levinson (1995), in which the utterance meaning ‘obligation’ of oi is made from the context. Applying Tregidgo’s (1982) notion of ''demand'' in characterizing English modal auxiliaries must and may, the association of dynamic, deontic, epistemic and obligation usage of oi are explained by a single notion of ''demand''. The gradient nature of the ‘volition’, ‘prediction’, and ‘future’ meanings of oi is also illustrated. In addition, the pathway development of modal verb oi and voi is proposed in light of the unidirectionality hypothesis assumed in grammaticalization theory and the source determination found in crosslinguistic data. In the study of development of grammatical morphemes of future, I demonstrate that the apparently identical future meanings of Hakka modal verb oi and voi in earlier studies of Hakka grammar (Hashimoto 1973; Lo (1988) [1984]) have some different semantic constraints, which result from their different lexical sources and pathways of development. The complex relationship between modality and mood, both of them associated with the aspect system, has also been clarified by the comparison of different conceptualizations about modality and mood in relevant studies as well as my empirical results. However, the mood system in Chinese languages is not realized by the verbal paradigms as is the case in Indo-European languages. The evolutionary process of the modality, mood and aspect system in Chinese languages remains an unexplored territory. The results of the present study point to the following questions that merit further research: the comparative study of modal verbs in Chinese dialects, the interaction of negation and modality, lexical retention and the distribution of grammatical morphemes in present-day usage, and the interaction of constructions and grammaticalization.

        目錄:

        Abstract
        Abstract (Chinese)
        Acknowledgement
        List of Abbreviations
        List of Tables
        List of Figures
        1 Introduction
        1.1 Previous Research on Hakka Grammar
        1.2 The Data
        1.2.1 Tungshih Hakka Dialect
        1.2.2 Previous Research on Tungshih Hakka
        1.2.3 The Corpus
        1.3 Scope of Study
        2 Literature Review
        2.1 Definition of Modality and Mood
        2.2 Types of Modality
        2.3 Modality in Logic
        2.4 Association and Development of Modality
        2.5 Summary
        3 General Findings
        3.1 Modal Verbs in Tungshih Hakka
        3.1.1 Definition of Modal Verbs
        3.1.2 Previous Studies on Hakka Modal Verbs
        3.1.3 Modal Verbs in Tungshih Hakka
        3.2 Grammatical, Thematic and Discourse Structure of oi (愛)
        3.2.1 Grammatical Structure of oi
        3.2.2 Thematic and Discourse Structure of oi
        3.2.3 Usage of Modal Verb oi
        3.3 Grammatical Structure and Meanings of voi (會)
        3.3.1 Grammatical Structure of voi
        3.3.2 Voi as Dynamic Modality
        3.3.3 Voi as Epistemic Modality
        3.3.4 Usage of Modal Verb voi
        3.4 Summary
        4 Discussion
        4.1 Association of Desire Verb, Dynamic, Deontic and Epistemic Modality
        4.2 Path of Development of Volitional Modal Verbs
        4.3 Path of Development of Ability Verb
        4.4 Grammatical Morpheme of Future
        5 Conclusion
        5.1 Summary of Findings
        5.2 Suggestions for Further Studies
        References
        Appendix: A Sketch of Tungshih Hakka Phonological System
        List of Tables
        Table 1.1: Distribution of Legends, Folk Stories and Jokes in the Corpora
        Table 2.1: Comparison of Types of Modality
        Table 3.1: Comparison of Modal Verbs in Hashimoto (1972, 1973) and Lo (1988)[1984]
        Table 3.2: Ranks, Frequency and Percentage of Tungshih Hakka Modal Verbs
        Table 3.3: Grammatical Structure of Modal Verb oi (愛)
        Table 3.4: Usage of Modal Verb oi (愛)
        Table 3.5: Usage of Modal Verb voi (會)
        Table 4.1: Five Main Types of Usage of Modal Verb oi (愛)
        Table 4.2: Levels of Meaning
        Table 4.3: ‘Demand’ Notion of Modal Verb oi (愛)
        List of Figures
        Figure 2.1: Portmanteau Representation
        Figure 3.1: Auxiliary Verb Construction
        Figure 3.2: Higher-Sentence Construction
        Figure 3.3: Relationship between Modal Verb Forms and Meanings
        Figure 4.1: Gradient Model for Modal Meaning
        Figure 4.2: Path of Development from Desire in Hakka
        Figure 4.3: Path of Development from Ability in Hakka