博碩士論文： 台灣北部客家祠堂之研究=A Study of Hakka Ancestral Temples in Northern Taiwan
摘要：客家民族到中華正統文化的薰陶相當徹底，注重傳統的家庭倫理觀念與禮教影響，南遷後，又以與主戶或土著，不相融洽，時起紛爭，以宗族人眾多，互助守助為競爭生存，因有此環境，故於居室與祠堂建築，亦不能不特別考究。北部客家是臺灣客家族群居住的主要區域，早期客家先民渡海來臺開墾，在當初同來臺人數不多情況下與並非在這裡落地生根的情形下，與自然與人文環境的變化，產生了改變。然後經過長時間的定居與社會的變遷，在有同樣的母文化背景，但來自環境的改變以使他們自成為一體。因此，欲研究北部客家祠堂有進一步的認知，就必須先回回歸到客家族群的文化背景作深入的瞭解，並結合對客家人具有相當影響力的中國之禮製，以從中發掘出屬於北部客家的新族群文化。 論文之研究章節如下： 第一章： 緒論：動機、目的、文獻回顧、方法及流程之說明。 第二章： 用儒家崇祖敬天的觀念，來導入關於客家祠堂背後的精神象徵意義、以及有何相互作用的整體性。 第三章： 經由臺灣客家祔結構與民間信仰，瞭解客家人對於祖先祭祀的觀念與認知。 第四章： 探討北部客家的祭祖觀念與祭儀對北部客家之影響。 第五章： 北部客家的傳統建築與祠堂的案例調查整理、分析其探討座落、坐向、內部擺設需求，與禮制秩序在北部客家建築的反映。 第六章： 探討北部客家祠堂之實質呈現的相對性。根據調查測繪資料與文獻蒐集，整理歸納出共同性空間基本形式，作為北部客家祠堂的基本平面形式之參考。
The Hakkanese people have been thorughly influenced by conventional Chinese culture which lays stress on traditional family ethics and the Confucian ethical code. After migratino south, the Hakka found themselves in disharmony and occasional quarrels with the local inhabitants or aborigines. These Hakka newcomers depended on mutual assistance and protection from fellow clansmen for survival. Beacuse of this environment, special considerations had to be taken when building homes and ancestral temples. Taiwanese Hakka live mainly northern Taiwan. When the first Hakkas crossed the sea to come to Taiwan and develop the land, they were not great in number and did not plan to settle down. Changes in nature and the social environment, however, also produced changes in the Hakka. They ended up residing in Taiwan for long periods of time during which their society underwent changes. Due to similar cultural backgrounds and to changes in society, they became a close-knit group. Therefore, in order to familiarize ourselves with the ancestral temples of northern Hakkas, we had to first do an in-depth study of the cultural background o the Hakkas and combine it with the Confucian ethical code which has had such a strong impact on their culture so as to uncover the new clan culture of the Northern Taiwanese Hakkas. This thesis is divided into th following sections: 1.Introduction: An Explanation of Motivation, Objectives, Literature Review, Method, and Process. 2.The Use of Confucian Concepts for Ancestral and Heavenly Worship to Determine the Significance of Spiritual Symbolism behind Hakka Ancestral Temples as well as Overall Interconnections and Interplay Between Them. 3.Ascertaining Hakka Concepts and Beliefs Regarding Ancestral Worship through the Structure and Folk Beliefs of Taiwanese Hakka Society. 4.An Examination of the Ancestral Worship and Rituals of and the Influence of Ancestral Worship and Rituals on the Northern Taiwanese Hakkas. 5.Case Studies. Arrangements, and Analyses of the Location, Orientation, and Internal Arrangement Requirements of Traditional Northern Taiwan Hakka Architecture and Ancestral Temples and Ritual System as Reflected in the of the Architecture of Northern Taiwan Hakkas. 6.An Investigation into the Correspondence of the Actual Appearance of Northern Taiwan Hakka Ancestral Temples. Systemization and Summarization of Similarities in Space and Basic Shapes Based on Summarization of Similarities in Space and Basic Shapes Based on Survey Drawings and Literature for use as Basic Graphic Reference of Northern Hakka Ancestral Temples.