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博碩士論文: 台灣閩南語母語教育之研究─以台南市為例=The Study of Taiwanese Mother Tongue-Taiwan Southern Min-Taking Tainan City as An Example

  • 作者:朱奕爵(研究生)、Chu,Yi-chueh(研究生)
  • 其他作者:施炳華(指導教授)、Shr, Bing-hua(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:臺南師範學院
  • 系所名稱:鄉土文化研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2003
  • 畢業學年度:91
  • 頁數:270
      • 關鍵詞:母語、鄉土語言、台灣閩南語、母語教育、mother tongue、dialect、Taiwan Southern Min、mother-tongue education

        摘要:

        台灣閩南語母語教育之研究─以台南市為例 摘 要 本文旨在針對台灣母語教育進行研究,以台灣閩南語為主體,以台南市為中心,從教育體制、民間社團中,透過文獻分析、訪問調查、問卷調查、分析比較歸納等方法,以研究台灣母語教育的實施狀況,作為改進今後母語教育的參考。 第二章,透過母語教學的理念、母語教學的模式,各國推展雙語教育的理念等,試圖建構母語教學的理論。 第三章,談台灣母語教育的歷史。從鄭成功來台,陳永華建議建儒學開始,歷經清朝統治的教育,皆以台灣人的母語讀唸的單語教育時期。日治時代開始,表現在語言教育方面的是日語與台灣人母語二者的雙語教育,直至皇民化運動的提倡,使得台灣母語教育中斷。戰後國民政府來台,由於國語政策的推行,扼殺方言,一元獨霸的國語運動,可以說是台灣母語教育的黑暗期。 第四章,探討解嚴後台灣母語教育及台南市母語教育實施情形。解嚴之後,由於本土文化的振興、台灣文學的提倡所形成的文化氛圍,造就了部分縣市率先進行母語教學的實驗並進行教材編纂的工作,使得母語教育在九O年代成為一種風潮。教育部則從1996年開始,在國小實施「鄉土教學」,2001年開始,國小在閩南語、客家語、以及原住民語三種課程中必選一種實施母語教學。 從台南市推展的狀況,得知在解嚴初期並未積極實施母語教育,只是透過教育局社教課或民間社團舉辦師資研習、演講比賽等奠基準備的工作,未全面推行於學校教學。再來,針對學校推行的現況及教師的母語能力與觀念態度做研究,發現母語教育在教育局不重視、學校敷衍、教師鄙視的情況之下,教學效果非常低。相對於學校母語教育的冷淡,社團方面的母語推展卻是熱絡的。經過十幾年來的努力,為台南市的母語教育做出許多貢獻,對家長、社會提倡母語的風氣、觀念的提升,也產生了諸多影響。 第五章是母語教材的分析。先從口頭語教材、書面語教材分析其內涵。接著從傳統的母語教材中,對傳統文言文教材、白話文教材、日治時期的漢文讀本及會話教材、戰後初期的母語教材等作回顧探討。解嚴初期的母語教材,百家爭鳴,各具特色,今日看來,有其時空背景,缺失多,但是仍然值得肯定。解嚴後正式進入教育體制的母語教材是鄉土活動中的母語內容,勉強來看,只是幾句台灣俗語罷了。九年一貫之後的母語教材,筆者選取其中五本作為研究對象,各版本的用字及拼音顯然比解嚴初期的版本進步。但是很顯然的,由於教育部不願意為教科書的審定負責,導致教材的編寫水準、音標的整合、文字的標準化,仍有待主政者努力。 第六章結論,根據前面的論述,對於台灣當前的母語教育分別就行政院、教育主管機關、學校、教師和社團方面提出幾點建議。
        The Study of Taiwanese Mother Tongue-Taiwan Southern Min-Taking Tainan City as An Example Abstract This study is mainly pinpointed at Taiwanese Mother Tongues, focusing specially on Southern Min dialect. This study is centered in Tainan City to examine how mother-tongue education is been carrying out and in an attempt to offer rooms for later readjustment of language learning policies. Through an inspection of current educational systems, private dialect-related clubs, and documents, the author inquires, investigates, surveys using questionnaires, analyzes, compares and inducts language-related data. Chapter Two deals with the construction of the language teaching theory by referring to some teaching ideas and models and bilingual education experiences from foreign countries. Chapter Three briefly introduces the history of the mother-tongue education in Taiwan. During the colonial era of Cheng Chen-kung and the Chin Dynasty-ruled educational period, early Taiwanese settlers from China studied Ru (Confucianism ), educational philosophy suggested by Chen Yung-hua, and consequently it informed the coming of the single mother-tongue time period. The Japanese-colonized Taiwan deployed the Japanese-Taiwanese bilingual dialect education, but interrupted by the advocacy of the Royalization Campaign. And later, the mother tongue acquisition was slain by the abrupt Chinese-Mandarin-only-no-Taiwanese language policy initiated by then Chinese government, which defeated and retreated from China to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War. Chapter Four primarily discusses the development of the mother-tongue education in Taiwan as well as in Tainan City in the wake of the lifting of Martial Law in this country. The education has become so popular that it becomes a fad in the ’90, mainly because of the renovation of local cultures, the promotion of Taiwanese literature after the lifting. The formation of a mother-tongue-friendly environment encourages some of the Taiwan cities and counties to go further on experiencing local language education and compiling teaching materials. “Local Culture Teaching Curriculum” was put to practice from 1996 permitted by the Ministry of Education. Since 2001, Southern Min (sometimes called Taiwanese interchangeably), Hakka dialect, and aboriginal (tribal) languages are among the requirements, in which a school has to choose at least one of them as its language teaching and learning project. The language education status had never been an active impetus as expected in Tainan City at the onset of the language movement after the lifting of Martial Law, i.e., it was not completely taught at all levels of schools. People were informed or learned of the dialect centered language movement only through the preparatory activities provided by, such as, the Social Education Bureau, language-learning seminars held by private clubs, or mother-tongue speech contests. Furthermore, the outcome of the survey on language teaching status and teachers’ abilities, attitudes and ideologies has shown that mother-tongue teachings have long been ineffective as a result of the ignorance from the Bureau of Education, schools’ perfunctory attitudes, and that it was belittled by teachers. Contrary to schools’ cold-eyed attitudes, the clubs are enthusiastic in pushing language learning to the front. They have contributed much to Tainan City language teaching after all the ten-year or so efforts they have done. Other contributions are also devoted to parents, the society, and the idea of education itself. Chapter Five analyzes teaching materials. Teaching materials analysis starts from dialectal and written books. Then it goes on to flashback on traditional literary ones, colloquial ones, reading or dialog-based books written in Chinese during the Japanese colonial period. However, to the modern eyes, early teaching materials after the end of the Martial Law were full of shortcomings due to time background, though an abundant variety of the materials were published and not without excellence. Yet, the past efforts still deserve some respects. A long time into the post-Martial Law era, mother tongue teaching materials are eventually the content of Local Culture Teaching Curriculum, which is formally included in regular educational systems. But the token content is reduced to only the teaching of a little Taiwanese slang. The author picks five versions of language texts for analysis from markets, which are largely spurred by the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. These versions show improvements on word usage and pronunciation, compared to the versions during the early post-Martial Law period. But efforts are still needed from policy makers, for, apparently, the Ministry of Education is still unwilling to take the responsibility to scrutinize language books and approve the publications of them. Its unwillingness deters positive developments of book compilations, integration of pronunciations, and the standardization of mother tongue characters. Chapter Six concludes this study. According to the statements above, the author offers suggestions to the Executive Yuan, education authorities, schools, teachers, and private language clubs, in hopes of strengthening Taiwan’s modern mother-tongue education.

        目錄:

        台灣閩南語母語教育之研究─以台南市為例
        目 次
        第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………1
        第一節 研究動機與目的…………………………………………………1
        第二節 研究過程與方法…………………………………………………4
        第三節 研究的範圍與資料………………………………………………5
        第四節 名詞釋義…………………………………………………………6
        第五節 文獻探討…………………………………………………………9
        第二章 母語教育的理論建構………………………………………………13
        第一節 母語教育的緣起……………………………………………………13
        第二節 母語教學的理念……………………………………………………14
        第三節 母語教學的模式……………………………………………………22
        第四節 各國推展雙語教育的理念…………………………………………23
        第五節 推展母語教學的理由………………………………………………26
        第三章 台灣閩南語教育的歷史……………………………………………29
        第一節 鄭、清時期的台灣閩南語教育……………………………………29
        一、鄭、清時期台灣福佬人讀唸漢文的語言使用………………………29
        二、明鄭時期的台灣閩南語教育…………………………………………33
        三、清代台灣閩南語教育…………………………………………………35
        第二節 日治時代的台灣閩南語教育……………………………………39
        一、台灣人的漢文教育……………………………………………………39
        二、日本人的台灣閩南語教育……………………………………………55
        第二節 戰後至解嚴前的台灣閩南語教育……………………………….59
        一、戰後初期台灣的語言情況……………………………………………59
        二、戰後初期的台灣閩南語教育…………………………………………59
        三、學校全面推動國語運動時期…………………………………………63
        四、社會全面封殺圍堵母語………………………………………………64
        五、台語消失的文化病狀…………………………………………………66
        第四章 解嚴後台南市的母語教育…………………………………………69
        第一節 解嚴後台灣母語教育的形成……………………………………69
        一、本土文化的振興與台灣文學的發展…………………………………69
        二、解嚴後初期各縣市的母語教學實驗…………………………………74
        三、教育部的母語教育政策………………………………………………76
        第二節 解嚴後台南市的母語教育………………………………………82
        一、台南市政府教育局的作法……………………………………………82
        二、台南市學校母語的推行現況調查……………………………………94
        第三節 台南市推行母語的社團及個人………………………………128
        一、推行母語教育的社團或單位…………………………………………128
        二、推行母語教育的個人…………………………………………………143
        第五章 台南市母語教育所採用的教材分析………………………………178
        第一節 母語教育的內涵……………………………………………………178
        一、口頭文學的母語教育內涵……………………………………………179
        二、書面文學母語教育內涵………………………………………………182
        第二節 傳統閩南語教材的回顧……………………………………………191
        一、清代傳統閩南語教材…………………………………………………191
        二、日治時代的台灣閩南語教材…………………………………………195
        三、終戰後解嚴前的台灣閩南語教材……………………………………198
        第三節 解嚴以後台灣閩南語教材…………………………………………201
        一、解嚴初期各縣市編輯的閩南語教材…………………………………201
        二、台南市鄉土教學中的母語教材………………………………………209
        三、九年一貫課程之後的母語教材………………………………………216
        第六章 結論………………………………………………………………244
        第一節 結論………………………………………………………………244
        第二節 展望………………………………………………………………250
        參考書目……………………………………………………………………253
        附錄一 台南市國小學校規模(班級數)與問卷委託負責人名單………263
        附錄二 台南市國小母語教學實施調查表…………………………………264
        附錄三 台南市國小母語教學實施意見調查問卷(擔任鄉土教學教師用)…266
        附錄四 台南市國小母語教學實施意見調查問卷(擔任母語教學教師用)…268
        附錄五 推行母語教育的個人 訪談大綱…………………………………270