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圖書: The hakka dialect : A linguistic study of its phonology syntax and lexicon

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  • 作者:Mantaro J.Hashimoto(write)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版地:New Jersey
  • 出版者:Princeton University
  • 出版日期:1973
  • 頁數:608
  • ISBN:0521200377
    • 關鍵詞:客家
    • 國家:臺灣

      目錄:請點選以下目次顯示內容

      List of tables 頁a15-a16
      List if figures 頁a17-a18
      List of charts 頁a19
      List of maps 頁a19
      List of phonological rules 頁a20
      List of syntactic rules 頁a20-21
      Foreword 頁a22-a23
      Transliteration and transcrtiption 頁a24-a25
      1、Introduction 頁1-34
      1.0、The Hakka and their language 頁1-3
      1.1、The formation of the Hakka group 頁3-5
      1.2、Distribution of the Hakkas 頁6-14
      1.3、A critical survey of Hakka studies 頁15-34
      1.3.1、Etymological studies in pre-modern China 頁15-18

      1.3.2、Dictionaries and manuals by missionaries and others 頁18-22
      1.3.3、Dutch and Japanese contributions 頁22-26
      1.3.4、Descriptive and comparative studies by modern Chinese linguists 頁26-34
      2.0、Hakka phonology 頁34-121
      2.0.1、The informant 頁34
      2.0.2、The transcription 頁35
      2.1、Phonetic description 頁35-89
      2.1.1、Repertory of syllables 頁35-85
      2.1.2、Phonetic transcription of the Hakka syllables 頁85-87
      2.1.3、Description of each sound 頁88-89
      2.1.3.1、Initials 頁88-89
      2.1.3.2、Finals 頁89

      2.1.3.3、Tones 頁89
      2.2、Phonological analysis 頁90-112
      2.2.1、Initial segments (consonants) 頁90-91
      2.2.2、Final segments (vowels and consonants) 頁91-103
      2.2.3、Tonemes 頁103-112
      2.3、Texts and translation 頁112-121
      3、Historical phonology 頁122-409
      3.0、Transcription and notation 頁122-125
      3.1、Tables 頁126-337
      3.1.1、The kuo rime-group 頁126
      3.1.2、The Chia rime-group 頁132
      3.1.3、The Yu rime-group 頁139
      3.14.、The Hsieh rime-group 頁153
      3.1.5、The Chih rime-group 頁172

      3.1.6、The Hsiao rime-group 頁192
      3.1.7、The Liu rime-group 頁206
      3.1.8、The Hsien rime-group 頁217
      3.1.9、The Shên rime-group 頁235
      3.110.、The Shan rime-group 頁240
      3.1.11、The Chên rime-group 頁273
      3.1.12、The Tang rime-group 頁291
      3.1.13、The Chiang rime-group 頁305
      3.1.14、The Tsêng rime-group 頁309
      3.1.15、The Kêng rime-group 頁316
      3.1.16、The T’ung rime-group 頁337
      3.2、Correspondence with Ancient Chinese 頁352-409
      3.2.0、Distinction of layers 頁352-353

      3.2.1、Correspondence of the initials 頁353-367
      3.2.1.1、The Chung-ch’un-yin initials 頁357-358
      3.2.1.1.1、The pang-mu 頁357
      3.2.1.1.2、The ping-mu 頁357-358
      3.2.1.1.3、The P’ang-mu 頁358
      3.2.1.1.4、The Ming-mu 頁358
      3.2.1.2、The Ch’ing-ch’un-yin initials 頁358-359
      3.2.1.2.1、The Fei-mu 頁358
      3.2.1.2.2、The Fêng-mu 頁358
      3.2.1.2.3、The Fu-mu 頁359
      3.2.1.2.4、The Wei-mu 頁359
      3.2.1.3、The Shê-t’ou-yin initials 頁359-360
      3.2.1.3.1、The Tuan-mu 頁359
      3.2.1.3.2、The Ting-mu 頁359
      3.2.1.3.3、The T’ou-mu 頁360

      3.2.1.4、The Shê-shang-yin initials 頁360-361
      3.2.1.4.1、The Chin-mu 頁360
      3.2.1.4.2、The Ch’ êng-mu 頁360
      3.2.1.4.3、The Ch’ ê-mu 頁361
      3.2.1.5、The Ch’ih-t’ou-yin initials 頁361-362
      3.2.1.5.1、The Ching-mu 頁361
      3.2.1.5.2、The Ch’ing-mu 頁361
      3.2.1.5.3、The Ts’ung-mu 頁361-362
      3.2.1.5.4、The Hsin-mu 頁362
      3.2.1.5.5、The Hsieh-mu 頁362
      3.2.1.6、The Ch’ih-shang-yin initials 頁362-363
      3.2.1.6.1、The Chuang-mu 頁362
      3.2.1.6.2、The Ch’u-mu 頁362
      3.2.1.6.3、The Ch’uang-mu 頁363
      3.2.1.6.4、The Shan-mu 頁363

      3.2.1.6.5、The Ssŭ-mu 頁363
      3.2.1.7、The Chêng-ch’ih-yin initials 頁363-364
      3.2.1.7.1、The Chao-mu 頁363
      3.2.1.7.2、The Ch’uan-mu 頁363
      3.2.1.7.3、The Shên2-mu 頁363
      3.2.1.7.4、The Shên3-mu 頁364
      3.2.1.7.5、The Ch’an-mu 頁364
      3.2.1.8、The Pan-shê-ch’ih-yin initials 頁365
      3.2.1.8.1、The Lai-mu 頁365
      3.2.1.8.2、The Ni-mu 頁365
      3.2.1.8.3、The Jih-mu 頁365
      3.2.1.9、The Ya-yin initials 頁365-366
      3.2.1.9.1、The Yi-mu 頁365
      3.2.1.9.2、The Chien-mu 頁365
      3.2.1.9.3、The Ch’inu-mu 頁366
      3.2.1.9.4、The Hsi-mu 頁366

      3.2.1.10、The Hou-yin initials 頁366-367
      3.2.1.10.1、The Hsiao-mu 頁366
      3.2.1.10.2、The Hsia-mu 頁366-367
      3.2.1.10.3、The Yü-mu 頁367
      3.2.2、Correspondence of the finals 頁367-383
      3.2.2.0、The tabulation 頁367-373
      3.2.2.1、The Kuo rime-group 頁374
      3.2.2.2、The Chia rime-group 頁374-375
      3.2.2.3、The Yü rime-group 頁375-376
      3.2.2.4、The Hsieh rime-group 頁376-377
      3.2.2.5、The Chih rime-group 頁377
      3.2.2.6、The Hsiao rime-group 頁377-378
      3.2.2.7、The Liu rime-group 頁378

      3.2.2.8、The Hsien rime-group 頁378-379
      3.2.2.9、The Shên rime-group 頁379
      3.2.2.10、The Shan rime-group 頁379-380
      3.2.2.11、The Chên rime-group 頁380-381
      3.2.2.12、The Tang rime-group 頁381-382
      3.2.2.13、The Tsêng rime-group 頁382
      3.2.2.14、The Kêng rime-group 頁382-383
      3.2.2.15、The T’ung rime-group 頁383
      3.2.3、Correspondence of the tones 頁384-409
      3.2.3.1、The level tone 頁384-388
      3.2.3.2、The rising tone 頁388-397
      3.2.3.3、The depatrting tone 頁397-402
      3.2.3.4、The entering tone 頁403-409

      4、Characteristics of the Hakka dialects 頁410-441
      4.1、Hakka tones 頁410-436
      4.1.1、The Ng-yan tones 頁411-418
      4.1.2、The Liuk-Hoi tones 頁418-420
      4.1.3、The Ngiau-p’in thones 頁421
      4.1.4、The tone system of Proto Hakka 頁422-432
      4.1.4.1、Development into the Liuk-Hoi system 頁425-426
      4.1.4.2、Development into the Ng-yan system 頁426-431
      4.1.4.3、Development into the Ngiau-p’in system 頁431-432
      4.1.5、Tones of T’ai-yüan and Lin-ch’uan 頁432-436
      4.2、Hakka pronouns and demonstratives  頁436-438

      4.3、Unique features of the Hakka dialects 頁439-441
      5、Hakka syntax 頁442-524
      5.1、Simplified phrase structure rules 頁442-443
      5.2、Basic sentence patterns 頁443-448
      5.2.1、Intransitive verb sentences 頁443-444
      5.2.2、Transitive verb sentences 頁444-445
      5.2.3、Incomplete verb sentences 頁446-448
      5.2.4、Determiners 頁448
      5.3、Dialogues and grammatical notes 頁449-522
      5.3.1、Dialogue I 頁449-455
      5.3.1.1、Ellipsis 頁450
      5.3.1.2、Pronouns 頁450-451
      5.3.1.3、Aspects and tenses 頁451-453

      5.3.1.4、Negative 頁454
      5.3.1.5、Interrogative 頁455
      5.3.2、Dialogue II 頁456-460
      5.3.2.1、Frequency expression 頁457-459
      5.3.2.2、Complement 頁459
      5.3.2.3、Potential marker 頁459
      5.3.2.4、Manner adverbials 頁460
      5.3.3、Dialogue III 頁460-464
      5.3.3.1、Deictic expression 頁462
      5.3.3.2、Embeding particle 頁463
      5.3.4、Dialogue IV 頁464-467
      5.3.4.1、Classifiers 頁465
      5.3.4.2、Time adverbials 頁466-467
      5.3.4.3、Instrumental adverbials 頁467
      5.3.5、Dialogue V 頁468-473
      5.3.5.1、Involuntary verbs 頁469-470

      5.3.5.2、Kinship terms 頁470-472
      5.3.5.3、Place adverbials 頁473
      5.3.6、Dialogue VI 頁473-476
      5.3.6.1、Measure words 頁475
      5.3.6.2、Affirmation adverbs 頁476
      5.3.7、Dialogue VII 頁477-481
      5.3.7.1、Directional adverbials 頁478
      5.3.7.2、Factive nominalization(1) 頁479-480
      5.3.7.3、The “Pull-out” transformation 頁480-481
      5.3.8、Dialogue VIII 頁482-485
      5.3.8.1、Factive nominalization(2) 頁483-484
      5.3.8.2、Duration 頁485
      5.3.9、Dialogue IX 頁486-487
      5.3.9.1、Subordinate and co-ordinate conjunctions 頁487

      5.3.9.2、Demonstratives as subject and object 頁487
      5.3.10、Dialogue X 頁488-491
      5.3.10.1、Nominalized subject 頁489
      5.3.10.2、Resultative complement (1) 頁490-491
      5.3.11、Dialogue XI 頁491-493
      5.3.11.1、det5-ŋin2 頁492
      5.3.11.2、-deu1 頁493
      5.3.12、Dialogue XII 頁493-499
      5.3.12.1、Extent complement 頁495-497
      5.3.12.2、Potential verbs 頁498-499
      5.3.13、Dialogue XIII 頁499-500
      5.3.13.1、Question words and indefinites owrds 頁500
      5.3.13.2、Stative expression 頁500
      5.3.14、Dialogue XIV 頁501-502

      5.3.14.1、Desire “zuxiliaries” 頁502
      5.3.14.2、Usages of han2 頁502
      5.3.15、Dialogue XV 頁503-504
      5.3.15.1、Usages of voi4 (1) 頁504
      5.3.15.2、Usages of oi4 頁504
      5.3.16、Dialogue XVI 頁505-506
      5.3.16.1、Suffix- “-det5” 頁506
      5.3.16.2、Usages of dzai4 頁506
      5.3.17、Dialogue XVII 頁507-509
      5.3.17.1、Usages of voi4 (2) 頁508
      5.3.17.2、Usages of von4 頁509
      5.3.17.3、Reduplicate concessive claves 頁509
      5.3.18、Dialogue XVIII 頁509-511
      5.3.18.1、Days of a week 頁511
      5.3.18.2、loi2-je3 頁511

      5.3.19、Dialogue XIX 頁512-514
      5.3.19.1、m2 s3 gi1 li1 頁513
      5.3.19.2、Resultative complement(2) 頁514
      5.3.20、Dialogue XX 頁515-
      5.3.20.1、Compartive construction 頁518-520
      5.3.20.2、Double object 頁521-522
      5.4、Summary of rules 頁523-524
      6、Hakka vocabulary 頁525-553
      6.1、Natural phenomena 頁526
      6.2、Minerals 頁527
      6.3、House and community 頁528
      6.4、Human being 頁529
      6.5、Kinship terms 頁530-531
      6.6、Parts of the body 頁532-533
      6.7、Illness 頁533

      6.8、Household furnishings, appliances and utensils 頁534-535
      6.9、Meal, food and drink 頁535-536
      6.10、Animals 頁536-537
      6.11、Grains, vegetables and fruits 頁538
      6.12、Abstract nouns 頁539
      6.13、Pronouns 頁540
      6.14、Classifiers 頁541
      6.15、Time 頁542-543
      6.16、Space 頁543
      6.17、Verbs, adjectives, prepositions and adverbs 頁544-547
      6.18、Grammatical words 頁547-553
      Footnotes 頁554-564
      Bibliography 頁565-580